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Cornell University 

Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 
1987 • 1988 

Digitized by 

the Internet Archive 

in 2013 

Cornell University 

Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 
1987 • 1988 

Academic Calendar 1987-88 


Registration for Quarter I* and Fall 
semester**; orientation for new 

Quarter I and Fall semester begin 
Labor Day Holiday 
Quarter I ends 
Examinations for Quarter I 

Registration for Quarter II* 

Quarter II begins 
Thanksgiving recess 

Winter recess: Instruction suspended 
5:00 p.m. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, 

September 1 and 2 
Thursday September 3 
Monday, September 7 
Wednesday, October 28 
Wednesday, November 4- 

Friday November 6 
Friday, November 6 and 

Monday, November 9 
Monday, November 9 
Thursday and Friday, 

November 26 and 27 

Friday, December 18 


Winter recess: Instruction resumed 
9:00 a.m. 

Last day for completing requirements for 

January degrees 
Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Birthday 

Quarter II and Fall semester end 
Conferral of January degrees 
Examinations for Quarter II 

Registration lor Quarter III* and Spring 

Quarter III and Spring semester begin 
Washington's Birthday observed 
Quarter III ends 
Examinations for Quarter III 

Spring recess 

Registration for Quarter IV 

Monday, January 4 

Friday, January 15 

Monday, January 18 
Tuesday, January 19 
Wednesday, January 20 
Tuesday, January 26— 
Friday, January 29 

Friday, January 29 and 
Monday, February 1 
Monday, February 1 
Monday, February 15 
Monday, March 28 
Monday, April 4— 

Thursday, April 7 
Friday, April 8- 

Tuesday, April 12 
Tuesday, April 12 and 

Wednesday, April 13 


Quarter IV begins 

Eighth Annual Vincent duVigneaud 

Memorial Research Symposium; no 


Last day for completing requirements for 

May degrees 
Commencement Day, conferral of May 


Memorial Day Holiday observed 
Quarter IV and Spring semester end 
Examinations for Quarter IV 

Wednesday April 13 

Tuesday May 3 

Thursday, May 12 

Tuesday, May 24 
Monday May 30 
Wednesday, June 8 
Tuesday, June 14- 
Fridayjune 17 

Summer Term 1988 

Registration for summer research 
Summer research term begins 
Summer research term ends 
Last day for completing requirements for 

August degrees 
Conferral of August degrees 

Monday, June 27 
Monday, June 27 
Friday, August 19 

Friday, August 19 
Wednesday, August 24 

*for students enrolling in courses 
**for students conducting research only, who are on leave of absence, or are in 

***fbr students changing from course work to research, who are going on leave of 
absence, or who are converting to in absentia status. 

Note. Courses are taught on a quarterly basis; degrees are granted at ends of the Fall 
and Spring semesters and of the summer term. The dates shown in the calendar are 
subject to change at any time by official action of Cornell University. 

In enacting this calendar, the Graduate School of Medical Sciences has scheduled 
classes on religious holidays. It is the intent of the school that students missing classes 
due to the observance of religious holidays be given ample opportunity to make up 



Calendar iv 

Graduate School of Medical Sciences 

Purpose 1 

History 1 

Facilities 2 

Organization 2 

Special Programs (M.D.-Ph.D, Ph.D.-M.D.) 3 

Faculty and Research Activities 

Biochemistry 7 

Cell Biology and Genetics 12 

Immunology 19 

Molecular Biology 23 

Neurobiology and Behavior 29 

Pharmacology 35 

Physiology and Biophysics 42 

Requirements and Course Offerings 

Admission 50 

Degree Requirements 51 

Tuition and Fees 54 

Financial Assistance 55 

Scholarships and Fellowships 55 

Awards and Prizes 55 

Student Health Services 56 

Residence Halls 57 

Special Programs(M.D -Ph.D., Ph.D.-M.D.) 57 

Programs of Study 

Biochemistry 59 

Cell Biology and Genetics 60 

Immunology 61 

Molecular Biology 62 

Neurobiology and Behavior 64 

Pharmacology 65 

Physiology and Biophysics 66 

Register 70 

Index 89 

The courses and curricula described in this Catalog, and the teaching personnel 
listed herein, are as of July 1, 1987 and are subject to change at any time by official 
action of Cornell University. 


Cornell Medical Center 

Cornell University 

Graduate School of Medical Sciences 


The Graduate School of Medical Sciences, a semi-autonomous component of the 
Graduate School of Cornell University provides opportunities for advanced study and 
research training in specific areas of the biomedical sciences. Graduate programs 
leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy are offered in biochemistry cell biol- 
ogy and genetics, immunology, molecular biology, neurobiology and behavior, phar- 
macology and in physiology and biophysics. Certain of these fields of study also offer 
programs leading to the degree of Master of Science. Collaborative programs with 
Cornell University Medical College lead to the combined degrees of Doctor of Philos- 
ophy and Doctor of Medicine. 

The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences recommends the award 
of advanced general degrees not only as the result of the fulfillment of certain formal 
academic requirements, but also as evidence of the development and possession of a 
critical and creative ability in science. Demonstration of this ability is embodied in a 
dissertation which the candidate presents to the faculty as an original research contri- 
bution in the chosen area of study. 

A close working relationship between student and faculty is essential to the pro- 
gram of the Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Guidance for 
each student is provided by a Special Committee, a group of at least three faculty 
members selected by the student. This Special Committee is granted extraordinary 
independence in working with its student. Other than a broad framework of Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences requirements for residence, examinations, and a thesis, 
and additional requirements of the particular field of study chosen by the student, the 
Special Committee is free to design an individualized program of study with its stu- 
dents. No overall course, credit-hour, or grade requirements are set by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences. A student is recommended for a degree whenever the 
Special Committee judges the student qualified. 


The opportunity for graduate study leading to advanced general degrees in the 
biomedical sciences was first offered at the Cornell University Medical College, in co- 
operation with the Graduate School of Cornell University in 1912. In June of 1950, 
Cornell University in association with the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Re- 
search, established additional opportunities for graduate study by forming the Sloan- 
Kettering Division of the Medical College. The resulting expansion of both graduate 
faculty and research training opportunities on the New York City Campus prompted 
the organization in January 1952 of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, com- 
posed of two cooperative but separate divisions, known as the Medical College Divi- 
sion and the Sloan-Kettering Division. The Graduate School of Medical Sciences was 
given full responsibility for advanced general degrees granted for study in residence 
on the New York City campus of Cornell University. 



Despite the divisional structure of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, the gen- 
eral facilities of the Divisions such as libraries, dining facilities, and recreational 
resources are open to all students. 

The Medical College Division. The buildings along York Avenue between 68th and 
70th Streets accommodate both Cornell University Medical College and the Medical 
College Division of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Facilities available to 
graduate students include the Samuel J. Wood Library with a collection of over 
136,000 volumes and subscriptions to 2,100 current journals, lecture rooms, teaching 
laboratories, seminar rooms and libraries of the basic science departments. Extensive 
research facilities are provided for faculty and students. 

The Sloan-Kettering Division. Its facilities are located within the Sloan-Kettering 
Institute for Cancer Research, which consists of the Howard, Kettering, and Schwartz 
Laboratory buildings on East 68th Street. In addition, the Walker Laboratory is located 
in Rye, New York. Each provides lecture and seminar rooms, and together represent 
more than 100 laboratories, which are available for biomedical research training. The 
Medical Library, Nathan Cummings Center with 27,100 volumes of books and journals 
is located near the 68th Street complex. 


The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences is composed of the faculties of 
the Medical College Division, consisting primarily of the professional staff of the basic 
science departments of Cornell University Medical College, and of the Sloan-Ketter- 
ing Division, consisting of those professional staff members of the Sloan-Kettering In- 
stitute for Cancer Research who hold faculty appointments. 

Graduate training is offered in several areas of the biomedical sciences. These 
Programs of Study include faculty members from the two Divisions who have related 
research and teaching interests. 

Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee is both the administrative and judicial board of the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences and its members have continuing responsibility for the 
academic affairs of the school. The Committee is composed of the Chairpersons of 
the graduate programs, the Dean and Associate Dean, the Provost for Medical Affairs 
of Cornell University, the Director of the Sloan-Kettering Division, the Chairperson 
and Vice-Chairperson of the Faculty Advisory Committee (see below), and two non- 
voting, elected student representatives. 

The Executive Committee considers such matters involving the interests and 
policies of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences as are referred to it by the Faculty 
Advisory Committee, by individual members of the Faculty, or are generated upon its 
own initiative. The Committee approves the addition or deletion of fields of study, re- 
views the admission of students, approves a student's major and minor fields, reviews 
the curriculum and requirements for degrees. 


The Executive Committee is chaired by the Dean, who is the academic adminis- 
trative officer of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences and is also an Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University. The Associate Dean, who is also an 
Assistant Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University, is the Secretary of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. 

Faculty Advisory Committee 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is the primary body representing the views of the 
Faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The Committee advises the Dean 
and the Executive Committee on the impact of educational and policy matters under 
their consideration and recommends changes in educational activities, procedures, 
and policy of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is composed of elected faculty representatives 
from the graduate programs and one elected student representative from each Divi- 
sion. The Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Committee are elected by its 
membership. Non-voting members are the Dean and Associate Dean, the Provost for 
Medical Affairs of Cornell University, and the Director of the Sloan-Kettering Division. 

Special Programs 

Medical Scientist Training Programs (M.D.-Ph.D.) 

These programs are designed to expose a student to both medical and graduate disci- 
plines during a six-year course of study The combination of skills in basic research 
and experience in a clinical setting will prepare graduates from this program to pur- 
sue investigative careers in the biomedical sciences or in clinical medicine. The stu- 
dent spends the first two years as a medical student studying the basic medical sci- 
ences and attending regular graduate seminars. The summer months are spent in the 
laboratory learning experimental techniques and doing research. The third, fourth, 
and fifth years of the student's program are spent as a full-time graduate student and 
are devoted mainly to laboratory research and writing the thesis. The sixth year of the 
program is devoted to clinical clerkships. This six-year program represents the mini- 
mum time required to satisfy residence requirements of both the M.D. and Ph.D. de- 
grees at Cornell University. Successful applicants to the program will become M.D.- 
Ph.D. Fellows and will receive a full tuition scholarship and a stipend covering living 
expenses for the six-year period. 

Separate Medical Scientist Training Programs are offered by the Medical College 
and Sloan-Kettering Divisions: 

M.D.-Ph.D. Program at the Medical College Division: Preclinical and clinical 
training are provided by the faculty of Cornell University Medical College, while grad- 
uate education in research is offered by the faculty of the Medical College Division of 
the Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 


M.D.-Ph.D. Program at the Sloan-Kettering Division: This program is sponsored 
collectively by the Sloan-Kettering Division and Cornell University Medical College. 
The program requirements include the research-based Sloan-Kettering Division Ph.D. 
curriculum and the Cornell University Medical College curriculum. 
For application to these programs, see p. 57. 

Ph.D.-MJD. Program 

Students enrolled in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences may be eligible for ad- 
mission into the Ph.D.-M.D. Program, jointly sponsored by the Medical College and 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. This program is designed for those graduate 
students who find that their teaching and research goals require the acquisition of the 
M.D. degree in addition to the Ph.D. degree. The program is not designed as an alter- 
nate path for students who have the M.D. degree as their primary goal, but who have 
not been accepted by a medical school. Those who know, at the time of application to 
Cornell, that they want to pursue a course of study leading to both degrees should ap- 
ply to one of the M.D.-Ph.D. programs described above. 

See p. 57 for application and graduation requirements of the Ph.D.-M.D. 


Faculty and Research 

— JL Jt iiik 





• ii i •••»*« 



John R Blass 
Adcle I. Boskcy 
Esther M. Breslow 
Arthur J. L. Cooper 
Gordon E Fairciough 
Jerald D. Gass 
Jack Goldstein 
Owen W.Griffith 
David P Hajjar 
Rudy H. Haschemeyer 
Bernard L Horecker 
Chun-Yen Lai 
Raymond E. Loekard 

Alton Meister 

Ursula Muller-Eberhard 

Abraham Novogrodsky 

Julian R. Rachele (Emeritus) 

Albert L. Rubin 

Edward T. Schubert 

Richard I. Softer 

Kurt H. Stenzel 

Suresh S. Tate 

Sidney Udenfriend 

Daniel Wellner 

Kenneth R. Woods 

David Zakim 

Research Activities 

Members of the Biochemistry program are engaged in research spanning a wide spec- 
trum of scientific areas. Thus, the research in Dr. Master s laboratory is concerned 
with the study of enzymes, especially those involved in amino acid, peptide, and pro- 
tein metabolism. It involves the isolation of enzymes, the determination of their struc- 
ture and properties, and the use of techniques such as isolation of mRNA and cDNA. 
The research is basic in nature, but significant relationships between this research 
and human disease have been discovered and are also being explored. Current work 
involves the metabolism and function of glutathione, including the relationships of 
this tripeptide to transport, metabolism, radiation, and chemotherapy 

Dr. Boskey's research is concerned with elucidating the factors controlling physi- 
ologic and dystrophic calcification. Hydroxyapatite formation and growth are studied 
in solution, in collagen gels in animal tissues and in cell culture. Recent studies have 
concentrated on the mechanism of action of proteoglycans (a mineralization inhibi- 
tor) and acidic phospholipids (promoters of mineralization). Studies are also in pro- 
gress on: the role of vitamin D metabolites in bone lipid metabolism, the actions of 
matrix proteins in the regulation of calc ification, and the effect of trace elements on 
bone metabolism. 

Dr. Breslow is concerned with understanding the forces that determine the spec- 
ificity of protein-protein interactions and the relationship between protein structure 
and function. She has been studying the interactions of the pituitary peptide hor- 
mones, oxytocin and vasopressin, with their storage protein, neurophysin. These 
studies are directed towards elucidating the binding site regions of the hormones and 
of the protein and at quantitating the energies of different components of the interac- 
tion. A second area of research concerns the mechanism by which proteins are de- 
graded intracellularly during normal protein turnover. The aims of these studies are 

Views of Manhattan from 
Cornell Medical Center 


to understand the precise role of ubiquitin, a small protein known to be involved in 
this process, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the selection of proteins for 

Dr. Cooper's laboratory is working in the area of a-keto acid biochemistry and 
pyridoxal phosphate enzymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of 
amino acids and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with 
short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed by 
positron emission tomography. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular empha- 
sis on the malate-aspartate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states are also 
being investigated. 

Dr. Goldstein is studying the structure and function and erythrocyte surface anti- 
gens and is working on enzymatic methods for the removal of immuno dominant sug- 
ars responsible for blood group A and B activity. He is also isolating and characterizing 
proteins exhibiting Rh structures, clarification of the genetic systems involved in Rh 
expression and modification of such antigenic sites by chemical and enzymatic 

Dr. Griffith's research involves the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of en- 
zyme-selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used both to evaluate 
and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact animals. Recent 
studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and cysteine metabolism. En- 
zyme-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both glutathione biosynthesis 
and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extracellular cystine formation to 
be controlled were also developed. The inhibitors were shown to be useful in treat- 
ing animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative killing of tumor cells, and prevent- 
ing the formation of leukotriene C. New inhibitors are now being developed to allovf 
in vivo control of carnitine metabolism. Applications of these compounds include 
the investigation and therapy of inherited diseases of lipid metabolism and diabetes. 

Studies are currently in progress in Dr. Hajjafs laboratory to investigate the in- 
teraction of endothelial cells which line blood vessels with the underlying smooth 
muscle cells in an attempt to define the role of the endothelium in the process of cho- 
lesterol accumulation during arteriosclerosis. In addition, the role of herpes viruses 
as an etiological agent in the pathogenesis of lipid accumulation and artherioscierosis 
is under investigation by studying the virus' effects on intracellular cholesterol me- 
tabolism and lipoprotein binding and metabolism. 

Research in Dr. Haschemeyefs laboratory concentrates on the development of 
physical methods to study molecular structure and interactions. Current emphasis is 
directed toward computer modeling of biological flow methods and heterogeneous- 
phase reactions. Additional computer applications are directed toward defining prog- 
nostic factors and treatment protocols that optimize graft survival in kidney trans- 
plant patients. 

Dr. Horecker is working on the isolation and characterization of peptides from 
the thymus gland and evaluation of their possible function as hormones that regulate 
cellular immunity. The cloning of the genes for prothymosin a and for parathymosin 
is a major current objective. Studies are also in progress on the properties of these 
substances as regulators of cellular immunity. 

Dr. Lai s research is concerned with the structure and function of biologically ac- 
tive proteins. Work from his laboratory has shown that subunit A 1 of cholera toxin is 
fully responsible for the toxin's ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in mammalian 
cells. Isolated subunit A 1 was also shown to catalyze an efficient transfer of the ADP- 


ribose moiety from NAD to a membrane protein. Structural studies revealed the pres- 
ence of a characteristic conformation for the NAD-binding site in the Al subunit. In 
another project, evidence has been obtained for a two-domain structure of the angi- 
otensin converting enzyme: the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal portion of the en- 
zyme is anchored to the cell membrane and the amino-terminal half, with the active 
site, is exposed to the blood circulation. Structural analyses indicate that the lung and 
testis enzymes may be the products of two distinct genes, and experiments are in pro- 
gress to explain the close similarities between the two enzymes. 

Dr. Lockarcfs research group is investigating how proteins associate with mam- 
malian messenger RNA ( mRNA ) molecules, and what the effect of these interactions 
are on mRNA function and stability. As model systems they are deriving complete sec- 
ondary structures for both mouse a and p-globin mRNA using biochemical structure 
data, and phylogenetic and computer analysis. They have determined unique classes 
of proteins associated with the globin mRNA's by photo-induced cross-linking. Both 
the identity and site of attachment of these proteins being investigated with respect 
to the secondary structure models in order to generate a view of the architecture of 
the mRNAs in both the ribosome-free and translationally active states. They are prob- 
ing the secondary structure of 18S ribosomal RNA in the small ribosomal subunit 
from rabbit reticulocytes and are interested in the relationship between ribosomal 
RNA structure and ribosomal proteins with mRNA. The unraveling of the multiple 
RNA:RNA and RNA:protein interactions occurring during translation should reveal 
important mechanisms of translational control of gene expression. 

Dr. Muller-Eberharcl is investigating the mechanisms of transport or iron proto- 
porphyrin IX and its metabolic precursors by proteins in the blood stream as well as 
within hepatocytes. She is studying the exchange of porphyrins betw een proteins 
purified from serum and from hepatocytes; developing methods which delineate the 
function of these proteins in the delivery of porphyrins to hepatocytes and their intra- 
cellular distribution; and assessing the interaction of these proteins with artificial and 
biological membranes to learn how they may facilitate ligand transport across cellular 
and intracellular barriers. 

The main objective of Dr. Soffer*s research is to characterize the physical, chemi- 
cal, and biochemical properties of angiotensin II receptor which has been purified to 
a nearly homogeneous state from rabbit hepatic membranes. 

Dr. Stenzel and Dr. Novogrodsky are interested in determining mechanisms in- 
volved in the regression of metastatic kidney tumor mediated by autologous killer 
cells activated by the oxidizing mitogens and recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL2). They 
are using in vitro systems to determine mechanisms of cell mediated cytotoxicity. 
These investigations include an analysis of mononuclear cell sub-populations in- 
volved, mechanisms of target cell lysis (membrane structures vs soluble factors), tar- 
get specificity and synergistic effects of additional biologic response modifiers. In 
vivo systems are used to determine mechanisms of tumor lysis in vivo mediated by 
administration of activated killer cells and rIL2 in mouse tumor models. Clinical stud- 
ies are underway in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to determine effi- 
cacy and toxicity of adoptive immunotherapy. Alterations in patients' immune re- 
sponses are determined. These studies include a structural and functional analysis of 
circulating mononuclear cell populations. 

Dr. Tate is investigating the mechanisms by which the kidney epithelial cell 
achieves its structural and functional polarity. Two brush border membrane pepti- 
dases and a basolateral membrane enzyme, Na, K-ATP-ase, are being employed as 


model systems to study the way in which these membrane proteins are synthesized, 
processed, sorted out and targeted to their final cellular locations using techniques of 
classical protein chemistry immunology, cellular and molecular biology: Other re- 
search involves the isolation and characterization of enzymes responsible for the post- 
translational formation of modified N- and C-terminal residues of peptide hormones 
in the hypothalamus and pituitary. 

Research in Dr. Wellness laboratory is concerned with the structure and func- 
tion of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, such as L-amino acid oxidase and 
threonine deaminase. Techniques employed for the study of protein structure include 
amino acid analysis and microsequencing using a gas-phase protein sequencer. Amino 
acid analyses of urine and blood of patients with inherited and acquired defects in 
amino acid metabolism are carried out as part of an effort to improve the diagnosis 
and treatment of these diseases. 

Recent Publications 

Blass, J. P ( with Sheu, K. E R., and Lai, J. C. K. ), Properties and regional distribution of pyruvate dehydrogen- 
ase kinase in rat brain. J. Neuroehem. 42:230-236, 1984. 

Boskey A. L. (with Weintroub, S. ), The effect of vitamin D deficiency on rat bone lipid composition. Bone 
7:277-281, 1986. 

Boskey, A. L., Phospholipids and Calcification: An Overview in Cell Mediated Calcification and Patrix Vesi- 
cles (S. Yousuf Ali, Ed. ), Elsevier Science Publishers B.V (Biomedical Division ) pp. 175-79, 1986. 

Boskey, A. L. (with Raggio, C. L., and Boyan, B. D. ), In vivo hydroxyapatite formation induced by lipids, J. 
Bone and Mineral Res. 1:409-415, 1986. 

Breslow, E. The Use of Neurohypophyseal Hormone Analogs in the Study of Neurophysin-hormone interac- 
tion in Handbook of Neurohypophyseal Hormone Analogs ( K. Jost, Ed. ), CRC Press, 1987. 

Breslow, E. (with Chandra, R. and Kappas, A. ), Biochemical properties of the heme oxygenase inhibitors, Sn- 
protoporphyrin: Interactions with apomyoglobin and herum serum albumin, J. Biol. Chem. 
261:3135-3141, 1986 

Breslow, E. (with Daniel, R., Ohba, R., and Tate, S. ), Inhibition of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis by non- 
ubiquitinatable proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 261:6530-6535, 1986. 

Cooper, A.J. L. (with Lai, J. C. K. ), Brain a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase comples: kinetic properties, re- 
gional distribution and effects of inhibitors, J. Neuroehem. 47:1376- 1386, 1986. 

Cooper, A.J. L. (with Plum, K. ), Metabolism and physiology of cerebral ammonia, Physiol. Rev. 67:440—519, 

Cooper, A.J. L (with Nieves, E., Coleman, A. E., Filc-DeRicco, S., and Gelbard, A. S. ), Short-term metabolic 
fate of ( M N] ammonia in rat liver in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 262:10" 7 3- 1080, 1987. 

Goldstein, J. (with Suyama, K., and Green, S. ) Antitumor activity of normal human blovbulin: effect on mu- 
rine and human erythroleukemic cells. Exp. Cell Biol. 53:93-99, 1985. 

Goldstein, J. (with Suyama, K., and Green, S. ) Effects of murine tumor necrosis factor on Friend erythroleu- 
kemic cells, Expl. Cell Biol 53 85-92, 1985. 

Goldstein, J. (with Lenny L, Hurst, R., Orlando, J. ) Enzymatic transformation of red cells for transfusion. 
Cahners Exposition Group, Stanford, Conn. pp. 199-203. 1985. 

Griffith, O. W. ^ with Jenkins, D. I. ). Antiketogenic and hypoglycemic effects of aminocarnitine and acylami 
nocarnitines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 83:290-294, 1986. 

Griffith, O. W (with Jenkins, D. I. ), DL-aminocarnitine and acctyl-DL-aminocarnitine. J. Biol. Chem. 
260: 14748- 14 755, 1985. 

Hajjar, D. P Herpesvirus infection prevents activation of cytoplasmic cholesteryl esterase in arterial smooth 
muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 261:7611 -7614, 1986 

Hajjar, D. P Virus-induced atherosclerosis. Herpesvirus infection alters aortic cholesterol metabolism and 
accumulation. Amcr. J. Pathol. 122:62-^0, 1986. 


Hajjar, I). H ( with Boyd, D. B., Harpcl, H C, and Nachman, R. L. ), Histidine-rich glycoprotein inhibits the an- 
tiproliferative effect of heparin on smooth muscle cells. J. Exp. Med. 165:908-913, 1987. 

Haschemeyer, R. (with Riggio, R. R., and Cheigh, J. S. ), Transplantation in the elderly in Geriatric Nephrol - 
ogy{U.¥. Michelis, B. B. Davis and H. Ci. Preuss, Eds. ), Field, Rich Associates, Inc., New York, 1986, 
pp. 141-148. 

Haschemeyer, R. (with Riggio, R. R., Suthanthiran, ML, Cheigh, J., Tapia, L, Stubenbord, W, Miller, L, and 
Stenzel, K. H. ), Predictability of renal allograft failure time in long term survivors: a hypothesis. 
Transplant Proc, Vol. XVII, No. 6, 2311-2313, 1985. 

Haschemeyer, R. (with Riggio, R. R., Cheigh, J., Suthanthiran, M., Tapia, L, Stubenbord, W, and Stenzel, K. 
H. ), Human retroplacental 7 globulin: past experience and proposed use of low dose cyclosporine 
in cadaveric kidney transplantation, Proc. EDTA-ERA 22:619. 1985. 

Horecker, B. L (with Goodall, Ci. J. ) Molecular biology of the thymosins, in Immune Regulation by Charac- 
terized Polypeptides, Alan R. Liss, Inc.. New York, 283-292, 198^. 

Horecker, B. L (with Goodall, Ci. J., and Dominguez, E ) Molecular cloning of cDNA for human prothymosin 
a,Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 83:8926-8928, 1986. 

Horecker, B. L (with Pan, L.X., Haritos, A. A., Widcman, J., Komiyama, T, Chang, M., Stein, S., and Salvin, S. 
B. ) Human prothymosin a. amino acid sequence and immunologic properties. Arch. Biochem. Bio 
phys. 250:197-201, 1986. 

Lai, C. Y. (with Tyski, S., and Fujii, Y ) Active fragment of the insecticidal toxin from B. thuringiensis, 
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141:106- 111. 1986. 

Lai, C. Y. (with Duffy, L K. ) A note on the predictive secondary structure of active chains of cholera and 
diphtheria toxins. Toxicon 24:204-206, 1986 

I^ii, C. Y. (with Berg, T, Sulner, J., and Softer, R. L ) Immunohistochemical localization of testicular angioten- 
sin I converting isozymes in the reproductive organ of rabbits. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 34:753— 
760, 1986. 

Lockard, R E., Currey, K., Browner, M., I^wrence, C, and Maizcl, J. Secondary structure model for mouse 
pnu, giobin mRNA derived from enzymatic digestion data, comparative sequence and computer 
analysis, Nucleic Acids Res. 14:582^-584 1, 1986. 

Lockard, R. E. (with Rairkar, A. and Rubino, H. M. ) Chemical Probing of adenine residues within the second- 
ary structure of rabbit 18S ribosomal RNA. Biochemistry In press. 

Meister, A. Modulation of intracellular levels of glutathione in Biochemical Modulators: Experimental and 
Clinical Approaches, (E Valeriote and L Baker, eds. ), pp. 2*5- 2^5, 1986. Martinus Nijhaus, Boston. 

Meister, A. Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems. Structure and Function, Ninth Karolinska Institute No- 
bel Conference (A. Holmgren, C. I. Brande, H. Jornvall and B.-M. Sjoberg, eds. ). pp. 339-348, 1986 
Raven Press. 

Muller-Eberhard, U. (with Metcalfe, S. A., DcFalco, M. G., Griffin, K. J., Liem, H. H. ) Studies on species cross- 
reactivity of hemopexin by use of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Biochem. Biophys. Res. 
Commun. 144:88-93, 1987. 

Muller-Eberhard, U. (with Ciricninger, G., Liang, T. J., Beuving, Ci., Cioldfarb, V, Metcalfe, S. A. ) Hemopexin is 
a developmental ly regulated, acute-phase plasma protein in the chicken, J. Biol. Chem., 261:15719— 
15724, 1986. 

Muller-Eberhard, U. (with Cioldfarb, V, Trimble, R., DeFalco, M., Liem, H., Metcalfe, S. A., and Wellner, D.) An 
avian serum a 1 glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly both in amino acid and in carbohy- 
drate components from mammalian ( p glycoprotein ) counterparts. Biochemistry 25:6555—6562, 

Novogrodsky, A. (with Nordenberg, J., Wasserman, L, Beery, E., Aloni, D., Malik, H., and Stenzel, K. H. ) 

Growth inhibition of murine melanoma cells by butyric acid and dimethv Isulfoxide, Exp. Cell Res. 
162:77, 1986. 

Novogrodsky, A. (with Wang, J., Suthanthiran, M., Walle, A., Lagman, M., Schwartz, R., Murthi, V, and Stenzel, 
K.) Anti-tumor properties of lymphocytes activated by the oxidizing mitogens. J. Immunol. 
136:4735, 1986. 

Menzel, K. H. (with Nordenberg, J., Wasserman, L, Beery, E., Aloni, D., Malik, H., and Novogrodsky, A.) 

Growth inhibition of murine melanoma cells by butyric acid and dimethylsulfoxide. Exp. Cell Res. 
162:77, 1986. 


Stenzel, K. (with Wang, J., Suthanthiran, M, Walle, A., legman, M.. Schwartz, R., Murthi, V, and Novogrodsky, 
A. ) Anti-tumor properties' of lymphocytes activated by the oxidizing mitogens. J. Immunol. 
136:4735, 1986. 

Tate, S. S. (with Khadse, V ) Renal ^-glutamyl transpeptidases: influence of glycosylation on the electropho- 
retic behaviour and molecular weights of their subunits. Biochcm. Biophys. Res. Commun. 
141:1189-1194, 1986. 

Tate, S. S. (with Nash, B. ) Membrane translocation and insertion of NrL-terminally anchored ^-glutamyl 
transpeptidase require a signal recognition particle. FKBS Lett. 211:133— 136, 198"! 

Wellner, D. Separation of 7-glutamyl amino acids by ion exchange chromatography. Methods in Enzymol. 
113:564-566, 1985. 

Wellner, D. (with Goldfarb, V, Trimble, R. B., DeFalco, M., Liem, H. H., Metcalfe, S. A., and Muller-Eberhard, 
U. ) An avian serum a 1 -glycoprotein, hemopexin, differing significantly in both amino acid and car- 
bohydrate composition from mammalian ( ^-glycoprotein ) counterparts. Biochemistry 25.6555 — 
6562, 1986. 

Wellner, D. ( with Phillips, P C, Thaler, H. T. Berger, C. A., Fleisher, M., Allen, J. C, and Rottenberg. D. A. ) 
Acute high-dose methotrexate neurotoxicity in the rat, Ann. Neurol. 20:583-589, 1986. 

Research Activities 

The faculty of the Program in Cell Biology and Genetics conduct research in a broad 
range of fields which include the most exciting areas of genetics and cell, develop- 
mental and molecular biology. Specific interests include the developmental biology of 

Cell Biology and Genetics 


Rosemary E Bachvarova 
David M. Bader 
J. Michael Bedford 
June L. Biedler 
Anthony M. C. Brown 
Raju S. K. Chaganti 
Moses V Chao 
Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz 
David B. Donner 
Magdalena Eisinger 
Donald A. Fischman 
James L. German, III 
Marvin Gershengorn 
Patricia L. Jacobs 
Eric A. Jafife 
Irwin Klein 
lone A. Kourides 
Paul A. Marks 

Malcolm A. S. Moore 

Newton E. Morton 

Ralph L. Nachman 

Joel D. Pardee 

Louis M. Pelus 

James H. Ray 

Richard A. Rifkind 

Toby C. Rodman 

Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan 

Anuradha D. Saad 

Marcello Siniscalco 

Martin Sonenberg 

Lisa Staiano-Coico 

Paul Szabo 

Martin Teintze 

Paula Traktman 

Doris A. Wall 

David Zakim 


the early embryo and of muscle tissues; membrane biology; cell motility and the cyto- 
skeleton; the molecular biology of cell growth, differentiation and oncogenic transfor- 
mation; endocrinology and hormone receptors; human cyto-, population and somatic 
cell genetics; molecular virology. These studies are pursued using the most current 
cell biological, genetic, molecular and immunological methodologies in modern and 
well-equipped facilities. 

The aim of Dr. Bachvarova's research is to understand the control of gene 
expression during meiotic maturation and early development of mammalian em- 
bryos. Differential expression and processing of mRNA's in the developing oocyte and 
embryo, and the role of small cytoplasmic RNAs, are being investigated. Dr. Batter's 
laboratory is concerned with the development of the heart. Specific interests are the 
differential expression of myosin heavy chains in the developing myocardium, and 
the mechanisms by which myocardial heterogeneity are generated. Monoclonal anti- 
body and recombinant DNA technologies provide the basis for these studies of car- 
dian myogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Processes in both the male and female repro- 
ductive systems which contribute to conception are the focus of research in Dr. 
Bedford's laboratory The cellular events undergone by spermatozoa during their ma- 
turation in the epididymis are under study; in the female, research is directed toward 
understanding sperm capacitation, sperm transport to the site of fertilization, and to 
the mechanism of fertilization. 

Dr. Biedlefs research concerns the genetic mechanisms underlying the cellular 
acquisition of resistance to cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Of current interest is 
the development of multidrug resistance, whereby cells selected with a single agent 
become cross-resistant to a wide variety of drugs. At least two amplified genes with a 
role in this process have been identified and are being studied. A second area of re- 
search is the cell biology of human neuroblastoma. This system, too, involves amplifi- 
cation of a specific gene and consequent cytogenetic abnormalities. Current studies 
are focused on the correlation of the differential expression of the N-myc oncogene 
and the EGF receptor gene with varying states of malignant transformation. Dr. 
Broum is studying the molecular mechanisms of oncogene action, concentrating on 
tumors induced by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). A major focus of his 
research is the function of the proto-oncogene int- 1, which is activated by MMTV in 
mouse mammary tumors and is also implicated in early embryonic development. The 
major aim of Dr. Chagantfs research is to define, using molecular, cytogenetic, and 
genetic epidemiologic methods, the role played by hereditary factors in the etiology 
of leukemia and cancer in humans. 

Dr. Chad's research interests focus on gene expression and regulation in mam- 
malian cells. Molecular genetic techniques are being applied to the gene for the nerve 
growth factor receptor and the role of the receptor in the mechanism of action of 
NGF and in the development of the nervous system. The development of cytochemi- 
cal, biophysical, and molecular probes and techniques for the analysis of normal and 
tumor cells is the focus of Dr. Darzynkiewicz's efforts. These probes may aid in can- 
cer diagnosis, classification, and therapeutic evaluation. Mechanistic studies on the 
pharmacological action of DNA intercalating agents on tumor cells are also being un- 
dertaken. Dr. Donner is studying, on a molecular level, how peptide hormone-recep- 
tor interactions are regulated and translated into changes of cell growth, differentia- 
tion, or metabolism. 

The identification and characterization of factors involved in growth stimulation 
or differentiation of skin melanocytes and keratinocytes in vitro, and the effect of 


cells grown in tissue culture and growth factors on wound healing in vivo, is the fo- 
cus of Dr. Eisinger's work. Dr. Fischman's research focuses on the cell and molecular 
biology of sarcomere assembly in developing skeletal and cardiac muscle. Monoclonal 
antibody and recombinant DNA technologies, as well as electron microscopy and flu- 
orescence energy transfer, are being applied to the study of post-translation steps in- 
volved in myofibrillogenesis. Several aspects of human genetics are under study in Dr. 
German s laboratory, including disturbances of malformation, disturbances of sexual 
development, and human cancer. Somatic cell genetic, cytogenetic, and molecular ge- 
netic approaches are being used. 

The focus of Dr. Gershengom's laboratory is the understanding of hormonal reg- 
ulation of cellular secretion. In particular, the stimulation of the anterior pituitary 
gland's secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by thyrotropin-releas- 
ing hormone is under study. Research is now centered on the inositol lipid-calcium- 
protein kinase C pathway for signal transduction by TRH. Dr. Jacob's laboratory is in- 
volved in cytogenetic and molecular analysis of human chromosome abnormalities, 
with emphasis on trisomies and sex chromosome abnormalities. Dr. Jaffe's interest is 
in the response of endothelial cells to exogenous stimuli; current research includes 
study of the interaction of thrombin with endothelial cell surface proteins and the re- 
sultant induction of prostaglandin and thrombospondin production. Interactions of 
endothelial cells and white blood cells are also under study. 

Dr. Klein is studying the effects of cardiac contractility and thyroid hormone on 
the regulation of cardiac myosin synthesis. Hormonal regulation of gene expression is 
the focus of Dr. Kourides' research. Of major interest to Drs. Rifkind and Marks are 
the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control coordinated gene expression and 
proliferation during induced cell differentiation. The principal experimental model is 
the murine erythroleukemia cell, which is a virally transformed red blood cell pre- 
cursor arrested at a stage of the lineage called the colony-forming cell for erythropoi- 
esis. Studies of the mechanisms implicated in the control of gene expression have 
demonstrated that the globin gene domains in murine erythroleukemia cells have ac- 
quired a unique molecular configuration with respect to DNA structure and chroma- 
tin configuration. Current studies are designed to identify and characterize regula- 
tory elements in the globin gene domains that may be implicated in the process of 
induced gene expression, and to identify genes regulating cell proliferation including 
protooncogenes and related sequences. 

Dr. Moore's primary interest concerns the concept of immune cell participation 
in hematopoiesis. The roles of prostaglandin E and T cells in normal hematopoietic 
and aplastic anemia, and in allogeneic marrow transplantation, are currently under in- 
vestigation by Dr. Pelus. In this context, new techniques for treating mismatched mar- 
row before transplantation are being developed. Together with Dr. Moore, Dr. Pelus is 
investigating the biological role of "pluripoietin" in sustaining long-term proliferation 
of pluripotential stem cells and primary myeloid leukemic cells. Dr. Morton's labora- 
tory is engaged in the study of genetic epidemiology, a science that deals with etiol- 
ogy, distribution, and control of disease in groups of relatives, and with inherited 
causes of disease in populations. Current emphasis is on origin of chromosomal aber- 
rations, construction of genetic maps, and disease-marker associations. 

The focus of work in Dr. Nachman's laboratory is the biochemistry of platelet 
membranes and the macromolecular assembly of adhesive proteins on various cell 
surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. The structure and function of blood vessel 
walls is also under study. Dr. Pardee's research is concerned with the regulation of the 


actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins. Regulatory proteins, such as myosin, 
severin and an actin filament bundling factor, have been isolated are being analyzed 
for their roles in cell migration, cell-substrate adhesion and neoplastic transformation. 
Dr. Ray's research utilizes somatic cell genetics and molecular biology to analyze gen- 
omic instability in the chromosome-breakage syndromes, a group of genetically-de- 
termined human disorders that feature predisposition to the development of cancer. 

Dr. Rodman's studies have, for a number of years, been concerned with the mo- 
lecular organization of gamete chromosomes. A project currently under investigation 
deals with the postulated role of sperm-unique components in the pathogenesis of 
AIDS. Dr. Rodriguez-Boularis main interest is an understanding of the cellular and 
molecular mechanisms that regulate the traffic and targeting of membrane proteins in 
eucaryotic cells, with an emphasis on the polarized distribution of apical and basola- 
teral plasma membrane proteins in epithelial cells. The experimental approaches uti- 
lized include cell and molecular biology, virology, immunology and electrophysiology. 
Biophysical analyses of thick filament assembly and myosin exchange in adult and em- 
bryonic skeletal muscle are the focus of Dr. Saads research effort. 

The primary efforts in Dr. Siniscalco s laboratory are the mapping of the human 
genome and its application to molecular diagnostics and the investigation of chromo- 
somal fragility with special reference to aging and malignancy. The long-range objec- 
tive of Dr. Sonenberg is the molecular description of membrane transduction of pep- 
tide hormonal messages after interaction with a specific membrane receptor or other 
membrane component. Dr. Staiano-Coico's research involves the investigation of epi- 
dermal cell maturation and differentiation in culture in conjunction with preclinical 
and clinical studies on the usefulness of epidermal cell sheets as transplantable grafts. 
The use of flow cytometry in the detection of individuals at high risk for the develop- 
ment of colorectal cancer is also being examined. 

Dr. Szabo's laboratory is investigating the molecular basis of cellular senscence, 
specifically concentrating on those genes which are normally expressed during the 
GO quiescent stage of the cell cycle but whose dysregulation may lead to senescence. 
Also under study is the molecular genetics of age-related disorders such as Alz- 
heimer's disease in humans. At present, Dr. Teintze s research if focused on two areas: 
the mechanism by which membrane proteins insert into the lipid bilayer, using model 
membrane systems, and the mechanism by which certain proteins are sorted to spe- 
cific membranes within eukaryotic cells. The main focus of Dr. Traktmarts research 
is a molecular genetic analysis of vaccinia virus. Of particular interest are the tem- 
poral regulation of gene expression and the coordination of viral DNA replication. A 
variety of molecular, genetic and biochemical techniques are being employed to iden- 
tify and characterize the viral genes and enzymes involved in DNA replication, homol- 
ogous recombination, and the maintenance of DNA conformation. 

Dr. Wall's laboratory conducts research in membrane biology, with an emphasis 
on receptor-mediated endocytosis and an analysis of intracellular membrane systems. 
The Xenopus oocyte is being used as a model cell to study the pathways of ligands 
and receptors during endocytosis, and the establishment and maintenance of distinct 
membrane systems during oogenesis and early embryonic development. The main in- 
terests of Dr. Zakim's laboratory are interactions, within the plane of a membrane, 
between lipids and enzymes and between lipids and small hydrophobic substances. 
The major emphasis is on how the physical and chemical properties of the lipids reg- 
ulate the function of integral membrane proteins. 


Recent Publications 

Bachvarova, R. (with De Leon, V.,' Johnson, A., Kaplan, G. and Paynton, B. V ), Changes in total RNA, poly- 
adenylated RNA, and actin mRNA during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. Devel. Biol. 
108:325-331, 1985. 

Bachvarova, R. (with Payton, B. V. ), Expression of repetitive sequences in mouse oocytes. In: Molecular Ap- 
proaches to Developmental Biology, eds. R. A. Firtel and E. H. Davidson, 1987 

Bader, D. M. (with Zhang, Y. and Shanq, S. A. ), Detection of a ventricular myosin heavy chain throughout 
cardiac myogenesis in the chicken heart. J. Cell Biol. 102:1480- 1484, 1986. 

Bader, D. M. (with Zadeh, B. J., Gonzalez-Sanchez, A. and Fischman, D. A. ), Myosin heavy chain expression 
in embryonic cardiac cell cultures. Devel. Biol. 115:204 — 214, 1986. 

Bedford, J. M. (with Esponda, R), The influence of body temperature and castration on the protein composi- 
tion of fluid in the rat cauda epididymidis. J. Reprod. Fertil. 78:505-514, 1986. 

Bedford, J. M. (with Schoysman, R.J. ), The role of the human epididymidis in sperm maturation and sperm 
storage as reflected in the consequences of epididymovasostomy. Fertility & Sterility 46:293—299, 

Biedler, J. L. (with Meyers, M. B., Spengler, B. A., Chang, T.-D. and Melera, P W. ), Gene amplification-associ- 
ated cytogenetic aberrations and protein changes in vincristine-resistant Chinese hamster, mouse, 
and human cells. J. Cell Biol. 100:558-597 1985. 

Biedler, J. L. (with Ross, R. A.), Presence and regulation of tyrosinase activity in human neuroblastoma cell 
variants in vitro. Cancer Res. 45:1628- 1632, 1985. 

Brown, A. M. C. (with Fung, Y. -K T, Shackleford, G. M., Sanders, G. S. and Varmus, H. E. ), Nucleotide se- 
quence and expression in vitro of cDNA derived from mRNA of int-1, a provirally activated mouse 
mammary oncogene. Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:3337-3344, 1985. 

Brown, A. M. C. (with Wildrin, R. A., Predergast, T.J. and Varmus, H. E. ), A retrovirus vector expressing the 
putative mammary oncogene int- 1 causes partial transformation of a mammary epithelial cell line. 
Cell, 46:1001 - 1009, 1986. 

Chaganti, R. S. K, Cytogenetics of leukemia and lymphoma. In: Malignant Lymphoma (C. W. Bernard and R. 
D. Dorfman, R. D., eds ) Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 184-203, 1987 

Chaganti, R. S. K. (with Balazs, I , Jhanwar, S. C, Murty V V. V. S., Koduru, R R. K, Grzeschik, K H. and Stav- 
nezer, E. ), The cellular homologue of the transforming gene of SKY avian retrovirus maps to human 
chromosome region lq22— 24. Cytogenti. Cell Genet. 43:181 — 186, 1986. 

Chao, M., V. (with Johnson, D., Lanahan, A., Buck, C. R., Seghal, A., Mercer, E. and Bothwell, M. ), Expression 
and structure of the human NGF receptor. Cell 47:545-554, 1986. 

Chao, Moses, V. (with Buck, C. R., Martinez, H. and Black, I. B. ), Developmentally regulated expression of 
the nerve growth factor receptor gene in the periphery and brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:3060— 
3063, 1987. 

Darzynkiewicz, Z. (with Kapuscinski, J., Carter, S. P, Schmid, F and Melamed, M. R. ), Cytostatic and cyto- 
toxic properties of pyronin Y. Relation to mitochondrial localization of the dye and its interaction 
with RNA. Cancer Res. 46:5760-5766, 1986. 

Darzynkeiwicz, Z. (with Carter, S. P and Old, L.J. ), Effect of recombinant tumor necrosis factor on HL-60 
cells. Cell cycle specificity and synergism with actinomycin D.J. Cell Physiol. 130:328-335, 1987. 

Donner, D. B. (with Lipson, K E., Yamada, K. and Kolhatkar, A. A), Relationship between the affinity and pro- 
teolysis of the insulin receptor. Evidence that higher affinity receptors are preferentially degraded. J. 
Biol. Chem. 261:10833-10838, 1986. 

Donner, D. B. (with Yamada, K, Lipson, K E. and Marino, M. W. ), Effect of growth hormone on protein phos- 
phorylation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Biochemistry 26:715-721, 1987 

Eisinger, M. (with Marko, ()., Ogata, S. and Old, L.J. ) Growth regulation of human melanocytes: Evidence 
for growth stimulating factor(s) in extracts of malignant melanoma, astrocytoma and fibroblast cell 
lines. Science 229:984-986, 1985. 

Eisinger, M., Regeneration of epidermis by cells grown in tissue culture. J. Am. Academy of Dermatology 
12:402-408, 1985. 

Fischman, D. A. (with Saad, A. D. and Pardee, J. D. ) Dynamic exchange of myosin molecules between thick 
filaments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83:9483-9487, 1987. 


Fischman, D. A. (with Saad A. D. and Obinata, T. ) Immunochemical analysis of protein isoforms in thick my- 
ofilaments of regenerating skeletal muscle. Devel. Biol. 119:336-349, 1987. 

German, J. L. (with Louie, E. and Banerjee, D. ), The heat shock response in vivo: Experimental induction 
during mammalian organogenesis. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis 6:555-562, 

German, J. L. (with Chan, J. Y. H., Becker, E E and Ray J. H. ), Altered DNA ligase activities in Bloom's syn- 
drome. Nature 325:357-359, 1987. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Imai, A. ), Thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates hydrolysis of phosphatidyli- 
nositol 4,5-bisphosphate transiently and of phosphatidylinositol persistently in rat pituitary cells in 
culture. Froc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:8540, 1986. 

Gershengorn, M. D. (with Imai, A. ), Independent phosphatidylinositol synthesis in pituitary plasma mem- 
brane and endoplasmic reticulum. Nature (Lond. ) 325:726, 1987 

Jacobs, P A. (with Sherman, S. L. ), The fragile(X): A marker for the Martin-Bell Syndrome. Disease Markers 
3:9-25, 1985. 

Jacobs, P A. (with Hassold, T, Leppert, M. and Sheldon, M. ), Cytogenetic and molecular studies of trisomy 
13. J. Medical Genetics 24: ( in press ). 

Jaffe, E. A. (with Bornmann, B.-J., Huang, C.-K. and Lam, G. F ), Thrombin-induced vimentin phosphorylation 
in cultured human endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 261: 10471-10474, 1986. 

Jaffe, E. A. (with Grulich, J., Weksler, B. B., Hampel, G. and Watanabe, K ), Correlation between thrombin- 
induced prostacyclin production and inositol trisphosphate and cytosolic free calcium in cultured 
human endothelial cells. J. Biol. Chem. 262: (in press), 198^ 

Klein, I. (with McDermott, P and Daood, M. ), Contraction regulates myosin synthesis and myosin ATPase in 
cultured heart cells. Am. J. Physiol. 249:H763-"69. 1985 

Klein, I. (with Hong, C. ), Effects of thyoid hormone on the myosin content and myosin isoenzymes of the 
heterotopically transplanted heart. J Clin. Invest., 77:1694- 1698. 1986. 

Kourides, I. A. (with Gurr, J. A. ), Thyroid hormone regulation of thyrotropin alpha and beta subunit gene 
transcription. DNA 4:301, 1985 

Kourides, 1. A. (with Rettig, W.J., Whitfield, G. K, Darlington, G.J., Spengler, B. A., BiedlerJ. L. and Old, L. 
J. ), Assignment of the gene for the beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone to the short arm of 
human chromosome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 1822, 1986 

Marks, P A. (with Rifkind, R. A. and Sheffrey M. ) Control of gene expression during terminal cell differentia- 
tion. In. Genetics, Cell Differentiation, and Cancer. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Briston- 
Myers Symposium on Cancer Research, Vol. 7 ed. P A. Marks, Academic Press, New York, 105— 117, 

Marks, P A. (with Kaneda, T, Murate, T, Sheffrey, M., Brown, K. and Rifkind, R. A. ), Gene expression during 
terminal differentiation: Dexamethasone suppression of inducer-mediated alpha 1- and beta maj- 
globin gene expression. Proc. Natl. Acad Sci USA 82 5020- 5024, 1985. 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Grabrilove, J. L, Welte, K, Lu, L. and Castro- Malaspina, H. ), Constitutive production of 
leukemia differentiation, colony stimulating, erythroid burst promoting and pluripotent factors by a 
human hepatoma cell line: Characterization of the leukemia differentiation factor. Blood 66:407- 
415, 1985. 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Harris, P E., Ralph, P and Lifcofsky, P ), Distinct activities of interferon-gamma lym- 
phokine and cytokine differentiation inducing factors acting on the human monoblastic leukemia 
cell line U937. Cancer Res. 45:9- 13, 1985. 

Morton, N. E. (with MacLean, C. J., Lew, R. and Yee, S. ), Multipoint linkage analysis. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 
38:868-883, 1986. 

Morton, N. E.„ Foundations of genetic epidemiology. J. Genet. 65:205-212, 1986. 

Nachman, R. L. (with Hajjar, K A., Silverstein, R. L. and Dinarello, C), Interleukin- 1 induces endothelial cell 
synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor. J. Exp. Med. 163:1595- 1600, 1986. 

Nachman, R. L. (with Silverstein, R. L. ), Thrombospondin binds to monocytes-macrophages and mediates 
platelet monocyte adhesion. J. Clin. Invest. 79:867-874, 1987 

Pardee, J. D. (with Saad, A. D. and Fischman, D. A. ) Fluorescence energy transfer studies of myosin thick fila- 
ment assembly. Biophys. J. 49:140- 142, 1986. 

Pardee, J. D. (with Saad, A. D. and Fischman, D. A. ) Dynamic exchange of myosin molecules between thick 
filaments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:9483-9487, 1986. 


Pelus, L. M. (with Lu, L. and Broxmeyer, H. E. ), Modulation of the expression HLA-DR ( la) antigens and the 
proliferation of human erythroid ( BFU-E ) and multipotential (CFU-GEMM) progenitor cells by pros- 
taglandin E. Exp. Hematol. 12:741-748, 1985. 

Pelus, L. M. Prostaglandin E mediated modulation of human marrow CFU-GM la-antigen expression. Kinet- 
ics and specificity Exp. Hematol., 12:831-837, 1985. 

Ray, J. H. (with Louie, E. and German, J. L ), Hybridization with human cells corrects the elevated SCE fre- 
quency and BrdU hypersensitivity of hamster cell line EM9. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 39:154- 157, 

Ray, J. H. (with Louie, E. and German, J. L. ), Different mutations are responsible for the elevated sister-chro- 
matid exchange frequencies characteristic of Bloom's syndrome and hamster EM9 cells. Proc. Natl. 
Acad. Sci. USA 84:2368-2371, 1987 

Rifkind, R. A., Acute leukemia and cell differation. N. Eng. J. Med. 315:56-57, 1986. 

Rifkind, R. A. (with Marks, P A. and Sheffery M. ), Induction of transformed cells to terminal differentiation 
and the modulation of gene expression. Cancer Research 47:659—666, 1986. 

Rodman, T. C. (with Laurence, J., Pruslin, E H., Chiorazzi, N. and Winston, R.), Naturally occurring antibod- 
ies reactive with sperm proteins: Apparent deficiency in AIDS sera. Science 228: 12 11 — 12 15, 1985. 

Rodman, T. C. (with Pruslin, E H.Jones, J. and Winston, R. ) Reactivity of natural IgM antibodies with sperm 
head surface proteins. J. Immunol. Meth. 94:105- 111, 1986. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (with Vega-Salas, D. E., Salas, RJ. I. and Gundersen, D.), Apical and basolateral markers 
polarize with different kinetics in MDCK (epithelial ) cells: role of the substrate and intercellular 
contacts. J. Cell. Biol. 104:905- 1987. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (with Vega-Salas, D. E. and Salas, RJ. I.), Modulation of the expression of an apical 

plasma membrane protein of Madin Darby Canine Kidney epithelial cells: cell-cell interaction con- 
trol the appearance of a novel intracellular storage compartment. J. Cell Biol. 104:1249- 1260, 1987. 

Saad, A. D. (with Pardee, J. D. and Fischman, D. A. ), Dynamic exchange of myosin molecules between thick 
filaments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 83:9483-94587, 1986. 

Saad, A. D., (with Obinata, T. and Fischman, D. A.), Immunochemical analysis of protein isoforms in thick 
myofilaments of regenerating skeletal muscle. Devel. Biol. 119:336—349, 1987. 

Siniscalco, M. (with Keitges, E., Rivest, M. and Gartler, S. M. ), X-linkage of steroid sulfatase in the mouse is 
evidence for a functional Y-linked allele. Nature 315:226-227, 1985. 

Siniscalco, M. (with Casanova, M., Leroy R, Boucekine, C, Weissenbach, J., Bishop, C, Fellous, M., Purrello, 
M. and Fiori, G. ), A human Y-linked DNA polymorphism and its potential for estimating genetic and 
evolutionary distances. Science 230:1403— 1406, 1986. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Haspel, H. C. and Corin, R. C), Effect of gossypol on erythrocyte membrane function: 
Specific inhibition of inorganic anion exchange and interaction with band 3. J. Pharmacol. Exp. 
Ther. 234:575-583, 1985. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Corin, R. E., Haspel, H. C, Pertez, A. M. and Rifkind, R. A. ), Antagonistic effect of butyr- 
ate on hexamethylene bisacetamide induced differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells. Can- 
cer Res. 46:1136-1141, 1986. 

Staiano-Coico, L. (with Kimmel, M. and Darzynkiewicz, Z), Stathmokinetic analysis of human epidermal 
cells in vitro. Cell Tissue Kinet. 19:289-304, 1986. 

Staiano-Coico, L. (with Higgins, P J., Darzynkiewicz, Kimmel, M., Gottlieb, A. B., Pagan-Charry I., Madden, 
M. R., FinkelsteinJ. L. and HeftonJ. ML), Human keratinocyte culture. Identification and staging of 
epidermal cell subpopulations. J. Clin. Invest. 77:396-404, 1986. 

Szabo, R (with Corin, R. E. and Turner, T), Murine erythroleukemia cell variants: Isolation of cells that have 
amplified the dehydrafolate reductase gene and retained the ability to be induced to differentiate. 
Biochemistry 25:3768-3773- 1986. 

Szabo, P (with Kusari, J., Grzeschik, K. H. and Sen, (i. C. ), Chromosomal localization of the human inter- 
feron-inducible gene encoding mRNA 561. J. of Interferon Res. 7:53-59, 1987 

Teintze, M. (with Furuichi, T., Thomas, R., Inouye, M. and Inouye, S. ), Differential expression of two homolo- 
gous genes coding for spore-specific proteins in Myxococcus xanthus, In Spores IX: The Molecular 
Biology of Microbial Differentiation (cds, J. A. Hoch and P Setlow, American Society for Cell Biol- 
ogy, 1985. 


Teintze, M. (with Thomas, R., Furuichi, T, Inouye, M. and Inouye, S. ), Two homologous genes coding for 
spore-specific proteins are expressed at different times during development of Myxococcus xan- 
tbus, J. Bact. 163:121-125. 1985 

Traktman, P ( with Evans, E. ). Molecular genetic analysis of a vaccinia gene with an essential role in DNA 
replication. J. Virology ( in press ). 

Traktman, P ( with Shaffer, R. ), Vaccinia virus encapsidates a novel topoisomerase with the properties of a 
eucaryotic type I enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. ( in press ). 

Wall, D. A. (with Meleka, I. ), An unusual lysosome compartment involved in vitellogenin endocytosis by 
Xenopus oocytes. J. Cell Biol. 101:1651-1664, 1985. 

Wall, D. A. (with Patel, S. ), Multivesicular bodies play a key role in vitellogenin endocytosis by xenopus 
oocytes. Develop. Biol. 119:275-289, 1987. 

Zakim, D, (with Noy N. and Donnelly, T. M. ), Physical chemical model for entry of water-insoluble com- 
pounds into cells. Biochemistry 25:2013-2021, 1986. 

Zakim, D. (with Jain, M. ), Spontaneous insertion of proteins into preformed membranes. Biochim. Biophys. 
Acta 906:33-68. 1987. 

Research Activities 

The main interests of the Immunology faculty are focused on the complex molecular 
and cellular mechanisms responsible for the development and regulation of the im- 
mune system. Research programs can be grouped into three main areas: 1 ) immuno- 
genetics of cell surface molecules involved in the differentiation and function of nor- 
mal and malignant lymphoid cells; 2 ) cellular immunology of the interactions 
between cells and their secreted products, and 3) tumor immunology of the trans- 
formed tumor cell and its host, aimed at designing possible diagnostic and therapeu- 
tic strategies. Research in all three areas involves studies using both animal models 
and human cells. Immunology is multidisciplinary in its approaches and has gener- 
ated its own methodology (such as the production of monoclonal antibodies, and the 
continuous in vitro growth and cloning of lymphoid cells ), in addition to using the 
methods of other disciplines, including biochemistry and molecular biology. For ex- 
ample, the analysis of the biological significance of a given lymphoid cell surface anti- 



Anthony P Albino 
Edward A. Boyse 
Yvon Cayre 
Bo Dupont 
Neal Flomenberg 
Ulrich Hammerling 
Michael K. Hoffmann 
Alan Houghton 
Robert W. Knowles 

Janet Lee 
Kenneth O. Lloyd 
Herbert E Oettgen 
Lloyd J. Old 
Richard J. O'Reilly 
Bijan Safai 
Alan N. Houghton 
Osias Stutman 
Soo Young Yang 


gen is not only studied using classical genetics and in functional assays using mono- 
clonal antibodies, but also by isolating the molecule and defining its structure using 
biochemical techniques and characterizing its gene with the tools of molecular biol- 
ogy Thus, the general approach of the research program is to define immunological 
events at the biological, biochemical and molecular levels. 

In the field of tumor immunology, Dr. Albino 's laboratory is examining the role 
of specific oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. This includes a 
comprehensive study of the steps required for the transformation of human melano- 
cytes and nevocytes. In addition, this laboratory also studies the structure and func- 
tion of melanoma cell-surface differentiation proteins and their gene sequences. 

Dr. Boyse's laboratory focuses on the description and understanding of genetic 
programs that specify the unique molecular constitution (surface phenotype ) of the 
outer membrane of cells according to their developmental lineage and stage of 

The main research objective of Dr. Cayre's laboratory is to investigate the molec- 
ular basis of monocyte differentiation. 

The central themes for Dr. Dupont's laboratory are the characterization of the 
genetic composition of the genes of the human major histocompatibility complex 
(MHC ); the investigation of the molecular genetic basis for the expression of these ex- 
tensive genetic polymorphisms of the MHC-encoded cell surface antigens as detected 
in the population; and the biological role of MHC gene products in immunoregulation 
and other biological functions. The laboratory is also involved in investigations in the 
area of transplantation immunology, particularly in relation to the understanding of 
mechanisms responsible for graft vs. host disease. 

Investigations in Dr. Flomenberg's laboratory focus primarily on the activation 
and effector functions of human lymphocytes. A large portion of this work concerns 
the molecular interactions between the T cell and its target, focusing on the major 
histocompatibility 7 complex gene products that initially activate or serve as targets for 
T cells, as well as the T cell surface molecules that are important for T cell function. 
Additional studies of autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, and the molecular genet- 
ics of B cell differentiation are in progress. 

For the mouse, the majority' of genes encoding lymphocyte antigens are orga- 
nized in distinct multigene families positioned on several chromosomes. Study of 
these gene clusters continues to be the major theme of Dr. Hammer ling's efforts. The 
immunogenetics of murine and human lymphoid and hemopoietic cell surface anti- 
gens using monoclonal antibodies is another area of Dr. Hammerling's studies, with 
special emphasis on their role in T cell activation. 

The main interest of Dr. Hoffmann 's studies is the analysis of the direct and fac- 
tor-mediated cellular interactions in the human and murine antibody responses in 

Dr. Houghton 's research program to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment 
of malignant melanoma arises from his interest in the biology of human solid tumors. 
Dr. Houghton views malignant melanoma as a paradigm for the pathogenesis of hu- 
man cancer. His studies involve the phenotypic and genotypic expression of antigens 
related to differentiation and transformation of melanocytes. 

The molecular genetics of the human major histocompatibility complex or HLA 
genes is the major area of study of Dr. Lee's laboratory. Her work currently concen- 
trates on the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of genes within the 
HLA region on human chromosome 6. 


Investigations of the glycoproteins and glycolipids of human tumor cells and 
normal cells are the focus of research in Dr. Lloyd's laboratory. Particular emphasis 
has been placed on the biochemical identification and characterization of these 

The main effort in Dr. Oettgen's laboratory is on the serological analysis of hu- 
man cancer antigens, the human and cellular immune responses to human cancer, 
and the development and application of human cancer therapies using cancer anti- 
gens, immunogenic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. 

Dr. Old's research is concerned with the development of two new approaches 
to cancer therapy: tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and monoclonal antibodies directed 
against surface determinants on malignant cells. The latter is part of a general effort to 
analyze the cell surface of human and murine tumors, with the aim to characterize 
the important surface molecules, mostly with monoclonal antibodies and other sero- 
logical procedures. 

The principal objective of Dr. O 'Reilly 's Bone Marrow Transplantation Program 
is the development and improvement of transplantation approaches for the treatment 
of lethal disorders of the blood system through an integrated program of clinical and 
basic research in immunology, hematology, genetics, and transplantation biology 7 . 

Investigation into the biology of epidermal keratinocytes and Langerhans cells is 
the focus of Dr. Safai 's research, with the objectives of denning the antigenic compo- 
nents of the epidermal keratinocytes and their secretory capacity and characterizing 
lymphocyte-epidermal interactions. 

The definition of the steps involved in the development, maintenance and func- 
tion of T (thymus-dependent ) cells through the use of murine models has been one of 
the main areas of Dr. Stutman's research. Another area of interest is the study of the 
immunological components of the tumor-host interaction. These studies include the 
definition of tumor-specific responses; examination of the role of such responses in 
affecting tumor development and behavior and the production of specific and non- 
specific cytotoxic cells that can kill tumor cells. 

Dr. Yang is involved in studies of T-lymphocyte activation, lymphokine produc- 
tion and regulation, T-lymphocyte differentiation antigens and their functions, as well 
as the gene organization and regulation of gene expression in the Class I MHC genetic 
region in humans. 

Recent Publications 

Albino, A. R (with Graf, L. H., Kantor, R. R. S., McLean, W., Silagi, S. and Old, L.J. ), DNA-mediated transfer of 
human melanoma cell surface glycoprotein, gpl30: Identification of transfectants by erythrocyte ro- 
setting. Mol. and Cell. Biol. 5:692-697 1985. 

Albino, A. R (with Houghton, A. N., Eisinger. M.. Lee, J. S., Kantor, R. R. S., Oliff, A. I., and Old. L.J. ), Class II 
histocompatibility antigen expression in human melanocytes transformed by Ha-MSV and Ki-MSV 
retroviruses. !. Exp. Med. 164:1710-1722, 1986. 

Boyse, E. A. (with Matsuura, A., Shen, E W, Fisher, D. A., Hood, L. ), Transcripts of Tla genes. Immunogenet- 
ics, in press, 1987. 

Boyse, E. A. (with Saga, Y, Tung, J. S., Shen, E W. ) Alternative use of 5' exons in the specification of Ly-5 iso- 
forms distinguishing hematopoietic cell lineages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press, 1987. 

Cayre, Y. (with Chorney, M. J., Srivastava, R., Bushkin, Y, Pan, J. and Weissman, S. M. ), MHC Class I Expres- 
sion and Malignancy. In: New Avenues in Development Cancer Chemotherapy Bristol Meyers Sympo- 
sium on Cancer Research, Vol. 8. Eds. K. R. Harrap and T. A. Connors. New York: Academic Press, pp. 
463-472, 1987. 


Cayre, Y. (with Wetzel-Raynal, M. C, Darzynkiewicz, Z., Dorner, M. H. ), A model for intermediate steps in 
monocytic differentiation: c-myc, c-fms and ferritin as markers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., in press, 1987. 

Dupont, B. (with White, P C, New, M. I. ), Structure of human steroid 2 1 -hydroxylase genes (congenital ad- 
renal hyperplasia/cytochrome P450/pseudogene/major histocompatibility complex/protein super- 
families). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5111-5115, 1986. 

Dupont, B. (with Chouaib, S., Robb, R.J., Welte, K. ), Analysis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) effect on T-lym- 
phocyte activation: Abrogation of PGE2 inhibitory effect by tumor promotor 12.0 Tetradecanoyl 
phorbol-13 acetate. J. Clin. Invest., in press, 1987 

Flomenberg, N. (with Rosenkrantz, K., and Dupont, B. ), Generation and regulation of autocytotoxicity in 

mixed lymphocyte cultures: Evidence for active suppression of autocytotoxic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. 
Sci. USA 82:4508-4512, 1985. 

Flomenberg, N. (with Rosenkrantz, K., and Dupont, B. ), Relevance of autocytotoxic and autoregulatory lym- 
phocytes in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In: Concepts in Immunopathology Vol. 4, Eds. J. M. 
Cruse, R. E. Lewis, Jr. Basel: Karger, pp. 24-41, 1987. 

Hammerling, U., (with Hoffmann, M. K. ), The role of the Fc receptor in T cell activation. Scand. J. Immunol: 
24:621-624, 1986. 

Hammerling, U. (with LeClair, K. R, Palfree, R. G. E., Flood, P M., and Bothwell, A), Isolation of murine Ly- 
6E cDNA reveals a new multigene family. EMBOJ. 5:3227-3234, 1986. 

Hoffmann, M. K. (with Chun, M., Hirst, J. and Hammerling, U. ), The T cell receptor recognizes nominal and 
self antigen independently. A theoretical alternative to the modified self concept. Current Topics in 
Micro & Immunol. 126:231-238, 1986. 

Hoffmann, M. K. (with Gilbert, K., Hirst, J. and Scheid, M ), An essential role for IL-1 and a dual function for 
IL-2 in the immune response of murine B lymphoyctes to sheep erythrocytes. J. Mol. Cell. Immunol. 
3:29-32, 1987 

Houghton, A. N. (with Cordon-Cardo, C, and Eisinger, M. ), Differentiation antigens of melanocytes and mel- 
anoma. Int. Rev. Exp. Path. 28:2 17-247, 1986. 

Houghton, A. N. (with Real, R. X., Davis, L. J., Cordon-Cardo, C, Old, L.J. ), Phenotypic heterogeneity of mel- 
anoma: Relation to the differentiation program of melanoma cells. J. Exp. Med. 167:812-829, 1987. 

Knowles, R. W, Immunochemical analysis of the T cell specific antigens. In: Leukocyte Typing II. Vol. I. Ed. 
by E. L Reinherz, B. F Haynes, L. M. Nadler and I. D. Bernstein. New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 259- 
288, 1986. 

Knowles, R. W. (with Flomenberg, N., Horibe, K., Winchester, R., Radka, S. F and Dupont, B. ), Complexity of 
the supertypic HLA-DRw53 specificity: Two distinct epitopes differentially expressed on one or all 
of the DR beta chains depending on the HLA-DR allotype. J. Immunol. 137:2618-2626, 1986. 

Lee, J. S. (with O'Neill, L. ), Methylation of the HLA-DR alpha gene is positively correlated with expression. 
Immunogenetics, in press, 1987 

Lee, J. S. (with Sartoris, S., Cohen, E. B. ), A rapid and improved method for generating cDNA libraries in plas- 
mid and phage lambda vectors. Gene, in press, 1987. 

Lloyd, K. O. (with Furukawa, K., Clausen, H., Hakomori, S., Sakamoto, J., Look, K., Lundblad, A., Mattes, M. J ), 
Analysis of the specificity of five murine anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies including one 
that identifies type 3 and type 4 A determinants. Biochemistry 24:7820-7826, 1985. 

Lloyd, K. O. (with Roux, L. ), Glycosylation characteristics of pigmentation-associated antigen (gp75 ): An in- 
tracellular glycoprotein of human melanocytes and malignant melanomas. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 
251:87-96, 1986. 

Oettgen, H. F (with Livingston, P O., Natoli, E. J., Calves, M. J., Stockert, E., and Old, L.J. ), Vaccines contain- 
ing purified GM2 ganglioside elicit DM2 antibodies in melanoma patients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84: 
2911-2915, 1987. 

Oettgen, H. F (with Yamaguchi, H., Furukawa, K., Fortunato, S. R., Lloyd, K. L and Old, L.J. ), Cell-surface an- 
tigens of melanoma recognized by human monoclonal antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 84:2416— 
2420, 1987. 

Old, L.J. (Rettig, W. J., Real, F X., Spengler, B. A., BiedlerJ. L. ), Human melanoma proteoglycan: Cell surface 
expression in hybrids controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Science 231 1281 — 1283, 1986. 

Old, L J. (with Sakamoto, J., Furukawa, K.. Cordon-Cardo, C, Yin, B. W. T, Rettig, W. J., Oettgen, J. J. and 

Lloyd, K. O. ), Expression of Lewis(a), Lewis(b), X and Y blood group antigens in human colonic tu- 
mors and normal tissue and in human tumor-derived cell lines. Cancer Res. 46:1553- 1561, 1986. 


O'Reilly, R. (with Kernan, N. A., Collins, N., Juliano, L., Cartagena, T, and Dupong, B. ), clonabte T lympho- 
cytes in T cell depleted bone marrow transplants correlate with development of graft- versus-host 
disease. Blood 68:^0- 773, 1986. 

O'Reilly, J. Current developments in marrow transplantation. Transplant. Proc. Vol. XIX:92-102, 1987 

Safai, B. ( with Katz, I. R., Krown, S. E., Safai. B., Oettgen, H. E, and Hoffmann, M. K. ), Antigen-specific and 
polyclonal B-cell responses in patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome. Clin. 
Immun. and Immunopath. 39:359—367 1986. 

Safai, B., Kaposi's Sarcoma: An overview of classical and epidemic forms. In AIDS: Modern concepts and 
Therapeutic Challenges, Vol. 12. Eds. S. Broder. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 205-218, 1986. 

Stutman, O. (with Bykowsky, M.J. ), The cells responsible for murine natural cytotoxic (NC) activity: a 
multi-lineage system. J. Immunol. 137:1120—1126, 1986. 

Stutman, O.. Postthymic T Cell Development. Immunol. Rev 9 1 : 159- 194. 1986. 

Yang. S. Y. (with Kosinski. S.. Hammerling, I . ). Human monoclonal antibody to an HI.A DRvv53 (MT3-like) 
epitope on Class II antigens. Tissue Antigen 28:150- 162, 1986. 

Yang, S. Y. (with Chouaib, S., and Dupont. B. ), A common pathway for T lymphocyte activation involving 
both the CDVEi complex and CD2 sheep erythrocyte receptor determinants. J. Immunol. 137: 
109"- 1100, 1986 

Research Activities 

Several of the Programs of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences jointly offer an in- 
terdisciplinary program of graduate research training in the structure, function and 
regulation of genetic elements; including control of normal gene expression, gene re- 
placement, oncogenes and oncogene expression, oncogenic viruses, chromosome 
structure, nucleic acid replication, recombination and repair, mechanisms of cell de- 
termination, growth factors and their receptors and human gene therapy. 

Molecular Biology 


Francis Barany 
Kenneth Berns 
Peter Besmer 
Moses V. Chao 
Eric Falck-Pedersen 
Eli Gilboa 

William S. Hay\\ ard 
William Holloman 
Jerard Hurwitz 
Joseph Jack 
Robert M. Krug 
Elizabeth H. Lacy 
Arthur Lustig 

Kenneth J. Marians 
Peter W Melera 
Norma Neff 
Michael E. O'Donnell 
Paul V. O'Donnell 
Mary Ann Osley 
Samuel Rabkin 
Jeffery V. Ravetch 
Ora M. Rosen 
Ganes C. Sen 
Michael B. Sheffery 
David Solnick 
Paula Traktman 


In the laboratories, the eontrol of gene expression is studied in a variety of viral 
and cellular systems, in cell-free systems, in cell culture, and in the intact organism. 
Influenza virus and adenovirus serve as models for the control mechanisms involved 
in the synthesis, processing and translation of RNA, both in the cell and in cell-free 
systems. Various eukaryotic virus expression vectors are being constructed for these 
studies. The use of human retroviruses for human gene replacement therapy is also 
under development. Virus-infected cells are also being employed for molecular stud- 
ies of interferon action. Cells responsive to specific inducing agents are used to eluci- 
date the regulation of gene transcription by peptide hormones, by interferon, and by 
chromatin structure. The gene amplification or rearrangement events frequently ob- 
served in tumor cells reveal the profound effects of such DNA alterations on gene 
transcription. Mice carrying new genes introduced by injection of DNA into early em- 
bryos provide novel examples of tissue-specific control of gene expression. 

Research of the mechanism of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication 
employs cell-free replication systems. Model systems have been developed to study 
the replication of SV4(), herpes-simplex, vaccinia and adenovirus as well as leading- 
and lagging-strand DNA synthesis on the bacterial chromosome. These studies aim to 
elucidate control elements and specific protein-nucleic acid interactions involved in 
DNA replication. Related studies are being carried out on the enzymological mecha- 
nisms involved in the recombination of chromosomes. 

Much of the research on the control of cellular metabolism and growth focuses 
on crucial regulatory proteins involved in the transmission of signals at the cell mem- 
brane, including various cell surface receptors, protein kinases, and the calcium bind- 
ing protein, calmodulin. In addition to biochemical and physiological studies, sub- 
stantial effort is being made to isolate and determine the nucleotide sequences of the 
genes encoding these important proteins. How cell determination is affected by the 
alteration of the expression of specific genes in Drosophila is also under study. 

The mechanism of action of viral and cellular genes directly implicated in neo- 
plasia is under active investigation. The study of the mechanism of activation of these 
cellular genes and of their gene products to become oncogenes may provide insight 
into the molecular basis of human cancer. 

Several laboratories focus on the cellular mechanisms that operate to control 
gene expression. 

Dr. Krug's research focuses on the unique interaction of influenza virus with its 
host cells as a model system for elucidating control mechanisms involved in the syn- 
thesis, processing, and translation of both viral and cellular messenger RNAs. 

Dr. Falck-Pedersen concentrates on developing an understanding of transcription 
in eukaryotic cells. In particular, a combined biochemical and molecular genetical 
approach is being used to analyze the termination of transcription by RNA poly- 
merase II. 

Both Dr. Huruitz s and Dr. Saltlick's laboratory are investigating the mechanisms 
of RNA splicing in eukaryotic cells. Whereas, Dr. Solnick studies the mechanisms op- 
erative during exon selection, Dr. Hurwitz studies the enzymes and enzymological 
processes involved. Dr. Gilboa is also characterizing the regulation of RNA process- 
ing in retroviruses. 

Research in Dr. Sheffery's laboratory is directed at understanding how proteins 
and DNA interact to form structures that influence gene transcription, using the 
mouse globin genes as a model. Particular effort is devoted to understanding tissue- 
specific gene expression. 


Dr. Osley is investigating a similar phenomenon in yeast, studying the periodic 
expression of genes, such as those for histone, during the mitotic cell cycle in yeast. 

Current work in Dr. Neffs laboratory centers on the regulation of gene expres- 
sion during the cell cycle of the simple eukaryotic baker's yeast, Sac char omyces cere- 
visiae, with calcium and calmodulin used as signal molecules during the cell cycle. 

The program has a particularly strong concentration of faculty interested in the 
mechanisms and control of DNA replication and recombination in both eukaryotes 
and prokaryotes. 

Dr. Hurwitz's laboratory uses the adeno and SV40 viral replication systems as 
probes for the enzymatic mechanisms of cellular DNA replication. 

Both Dr. Traktmaris and Dr. Rabkins laboratory study the replication of large 
DNA viruses that encode their own DNA replication machinery. Dr. Traktman em- 
ploys both biochemical and molecular genetical techniques to define the genes of 
vaccinia virus that are required for its replication. Dr. Rabkin is developing an 
in vitro system for the replication of herpes simplex viral DNA. 

Using molecular genetics and biochemistry, the mechanisms that have evolved 
for replicating telomeres, the unique ends of chromosomes required for stability, and 
the role these sequences play in chromosome segregation are being investigated by 
Dr. Lustig. 

The only families of linear DNA viruses that replicate in mammalian cell nuclei 
are the adeno-associated virus, the adenovirus and herpesvirus; the structure and 
function of one of these is the object study of Dr. Berns' laboratory This virus was se- 
lected because it is thought to be highly amenable to detailed longitudinal investiga- 
tion, since it readily establishes latent infections in continuous cell lines in culture de- 
rived from the normal host. A study of this virus may also have bearing on the 
molecular biology of cellular DNA replication and transcription. 

DNA replication in prokaryotes is under study in the laboratories of Dr. Marians 
and Dr. M. ODonnell. Dr. Marians focuses on studies of the enzymological mecha- 
nisms of DNA replication. The use of in vitro DNA replication systems composed of 
purified replication proteins enables detailed analyses of the interaction of the replica- 
tion proteins with each other and with the DNA template. The role of topology in 
DNA replication, as well as the mechanisms of DNA topoisome rases, is also under 

A detailed examination of the molecular mechanics of DNA replication is also the 
focus of Dr. M. O DonnelTs laboratory. The dynamic motions on templates of the 
multi-protein replicative polymerase of K coli and its interaction with other proteins 
at the replication fork are under study. 

Another key cellular process that occurs on DNA is the exchange of genetic in- 
formation through the process of recombination. Dr. Holloman's laboratory studies 
the enzymological mechanisms involved in this complicated process. Model studies 
focus on the mechanism of synapsis and DNA strand exchange promoted by the 
rec 1 protein. 

Several laboratories concentrate on the mechanism of control of cell growth, in- 
cluding mechanisms of neoplasia, response to hormone stimuli, mechanisms of cell 
determination, and human gene therapy. 

Elucidation of the mechanism of action of insulin and related growth factors, 
leading to a detailed understanding of the receptor molecule as well as the mecha- 
nism^) by which it transmits signals from the cell surface to its interior is the princi- 
pal goal of Dr. Rosen's research. 


The gene for human nerve growth factor has been isolated by Dr. Chad's labora- 
tory. Recombinant DNA technology is being used to study the important structural 
features of the gene and the molecular basis of differential receptor expression during 

In a series of experiments in Dr. Ravetch's laboratory, the molecular genetic 
analysis of cell surface receptor proteins is being conducted, aimed at denning their 
modulation, mechanism of signal transduction and developmental regulation by isola- 
tion and characterization of genes that code for proteins binding immunoglobulin 
(FC receptors), by studying the interaction of the malaria producing parasite with the 
erythrocyte, and by characterizing the activated macrophage phenotype. 

The production and analysis of embryonic lethal mutations and the identification 
of DNA sequences involved in regulating the stage-specific and tissue-specific expres- 
sion of genes during mammalian development are the foci of Dr. Lacy's research. The 
main experimental tool for these studies is the generation of transgenic mice. Among 
studies underway are those designed to identify sequences required for the specific 
expression of genes in T cells. 

Dr. Jack's laboratory is involved in unraveling the molecular basis for changes in 
cell determination induced by mutations in the cut locus of Drosophila. 

Current research objectives of Dr. Besmefs laboratory are to investigate the 
structure and function of the proto-oncogene KIT to investigate its role in neoplastic 
transformation and to determine the basis of the differing neoplastic potential of the 
murine and feline abl viruses. 

The creation of systems in the mouse for the study of the development of T-cell 
leukemia is the major focus of Dr. P. ODonnelVs laboratory. Efforts are directed at 
characterizing the sequence of events in what now appears to be a multistep process 
of virus-induced transformation and progression to frank leukemia. 

Dr. Haywards research objective is to elucidate the mechanisms by which viral 
and non-viral agents induce neoplastic disease through the use of three classes of 
avian retroviruses as model systems. 

Studies of the mechanisms of action of interferons against vesicular stomatitis 
virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, and retroviruses representing three virus groups 
with completely different replication strategies are underway in Dr. Sen's laboratory 

Dr. Gilboa is developing retroviral vectors that can be used for human gene re- 
placement therapy. 

Dr. Melerds laboratory is involved in three major research projects: the first at- 
tempts to unravel the response of Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL) to antifolate chal- 
lenge via the overproduction of two different molecular weight forms of the target en- 
zyme dihydrofolate reductase; the second seeks to understand the role of gene 
amplification in the establishment of the multidrug-resistant phenotype displayed by 
CHL cells selected with vincristine; and the third is a study of DNA sequence amplifi- 
cation in human cancer, particularly neuroblastoma. 

Dr. Bar any uses the modern tools of the molecular biologist to engineer specific 
changes in proteins. Currently, the bacterial beta-lacatamase gene is being redesigned 
to produce an enzyme that has greafer thermostability, lower susceptibility to inhibi- 
tors, and increased catalytic activity. 


Recent Publications 

Barany, E Two codon insertion mutagenesis of plasmid genes using single-stranded hexameric oligonucleo- 
tides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:4202-4206, 1985. 

Barany, E Single-stranded hexameric linkers: A system for inphase insertion mutagenesis and protein engi- 
neering. Gene 37:111-123, 1985. 

Berns, K. I. (with Labow, M., and Hermonat. P. L. ), Positive and negative autoregulation of the adeno-associ- 
ated virus type 2 genome. J. Virol. 60:25 1-258, 1986. 

Berns. K. I. (with Labow, M. A., and Graf, L. J, Jr. ), Adeno-associated virus gene expression inhibits cellular 
transformation by heterologous genes. Mol. Oil. Biol. 7:1320- 1325, 1987. 

Besmer, P ( with Murphy, J. E., George, P G., Qiu, E H., Bergold, P J., Lederman, L, Snyder, H. W., Brodeur, D., 
Zuckerman, E. E., and Hardy W D. ), A new acute transforming feline retrovirus and relationship of 
its oncogene \ kit with the protein kinase gene family. Nature 320:4 15—42 1, 1986. 

Chao, M. V. (with Bothwell, ML A., Ross, A. H.. Koprowski, H.. Lanahan, A.. Buck, C. R., and Sehgal, A. ), Gene 
transfer and molecular cloning of the human NGF receptor. Science 232:5 18— 52 1, 1986. 

Chao, M. V. (with Johnson, I).. lanahan. A., Buck, C. R.. Sehgal, A., Morgan, C, Mercer, E., and Bothwell, M ), 
Expression and structure of the human NGF receptor. Cell 4~:445-454, 1986. 

Falck Pedcrscn, E (with Iwamoto, S.. Eggerding, E. and Darnell, J. E.Jr. ). Transcription unit mapping in 
adenovirus: Regions of termination. J Virol. 59:112—119, 1986. 

Falck-Pedersen, E. (with Logan, J., Shenk, T, and Darnell. J. D . Jr. ), Transcription termination within the Ela 
gene of adenovirus induced by inhibition of the mouse (3-major globin terminator element. Cell 
40:89^-905. 1985. 

Gilboa, E. (with Hwang. L, and Park, J. ), Role of intron-contained sequences in the formation of the Molo- 
ney murine leukemia virus env RNA. Mol. Cell Biol 4:2289-229" 1984. 

Gilboa, E. (with Yu, S.. von Ruben, T. Seilberg. M .. kanloff. P, Ruther. ().. Anderson. F W, and Wagner, E. ), 
Self-inactivating retroviral vectors designed for transfer of whole genes into mammalian cells. Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sci. I SA 83 3 194- 3 198, 1986. 

Hayward, W S. (with Simon, M. S , Neckameyer, W S., and Smith R. E. ), Genetic determinants of neoplastic 
diseases induced by a subgroup F avian leukosis virus. J. Virol. 61:1203— 12 12. 198" 

Hayward, W S. (with Goodcnow. M M. ). 5' LTRs of myt associated proviruscs appear structurally intact 
but are functionally impaired in tumors induced by avian leukosis viruses. J. Virol., 198" 7 , in press. 

Holloman, W K. (with Kmiec, E. B , and Angelides. K. J. ). Left handed DNA and the synaptic pairing reaction 
promoted by Ustilago rec 1 protein. Cell 40:139- L»5, 1985. 

Holloman, W K. (with Kmiec, E. B. ), Homologous pairing of DNA molecules by Ustilago rec 1 protein is pro- 
moted by sequences of Z-DNA Cell 44:545-554, 1986. 

Hurwitz, J. (with Dean. E B.. Bullock, P, Murakami, Y, Wobbc, C. R., and Wcissbach, L ), Simian virus 40 

(SV40) DNA replication: SV'40 large T antigen unwinds DNA containing the SV40 origin of replica- 
tion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:16-20, 1987 

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Jack, J. W Molecular organization of the cut locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Cell 42:869—876, 1985. 

Krug, R. M. (with Plotch. S.J. ), /// vitro splicing of influenza viral NS1 mRNA and NSl-beta-globin chimeras: 
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Krug, R. M. (with St. Angelo, C, Smith, G. E., and Summers, M. D. ), Two of the three influenza viral polymer- 
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Lustig, A. (with Lin, R. J., and Abelson, J. ), The yeast rna gene produets are essential tor mRNA splicing in 
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Lustig, A. (with Petes, T. D. ), Identification of yeast mutants with altered telomere structure. Proc. Natl. 
Acad. Sci. USA 83:1398- 1402, 1986. 

Marians, K. J. (with Minden, J. ), Eschericia coli topoisomerase I can segregate replicating pBR322 daughter 
DNA molecules in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 261:11906- 11917, 1986. 

Marians, K. J. (with Mok, M. ), Formation of rolling-circle molecules during (j>X174 complementary strand 
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rael, M. A., and Cowan, K. H. ), Isolation of amplified and overexpressed DNA sequence from adria- 
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by the herpes simplex virus-induced DNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 262:4252-4259, 1987. 

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tone promotor involved in period transcription. Cell 45:537-544, 1986. 

Osley, M. A. (with Lycan, D., and Hereford, L. ), Role of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in 
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10:151-171, 1987 

Ravetch, J. V (with Pologe, L. ), A DNA rearrangement in the histidine-rich protein of P. falciparum is associ- 
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Neurobiology and Behavior 


Harriet D. Baker 

J.John Mann 

Ira B. Black 

Michiko Okamoto 

Dana C. Brooks 

Gavril W. Pasternak 

Arthur J. L. Cooper 

Virginia M. Pickel 

Cheryl Dreyfus 

Fred Plum 

Daniel Gardner 

Donald J. Reis 

Michael S. Gazzaniga 

David A. Rottenberg 

James G. Gibbs,Jr. 

David A. Ruggiero 

Gary E. Gibson 

Leonard S. Schleifer 

Bernice Graftstein 

Jeri A. Sechzer 

Katherine A. Halmi 

Gerard P Smith 

Lorraine Iacovitti 

Peter E. Stokes 

Tong H. Joh 

Gladys N. Teitelman 

Joseph E. LeDoux 

Jonathan Victor 

David E. Levy 

Robert Young 

Research Activities 

Dr. Baker is interested in the factors underlying the determination and maintenance 
of neuronal phenotype. Using the olfactory system as a model, the research focus is 
on both catecholaminergic and peptidergic systems. Strain and species differences in 
neurotransmitter expression is another research interest. The techniques utilized in 
these studies include immunocytochemistry neurochemistry and neuronal tracing 

Dr. Black studies the molecular genetics underlying neuronal plasticity in the pe- 
ripheral nervous system and the brain. A combination of in vivo, tissue culture, mo- 
lecular biological, biochemical and morphologic techniques are employed to explore 
plasticity, and its role in the function of the nervous system. Developmental as well as 
aging models are being studied. 

Dr. Brooks is using signal averaging techniques to study the manner in which au- 
ditory information is processed as it passes through the first relay nucleus of the audi- 
tory system in the cat. The potential fields generated by the subdivisions of this nu- 
clear complex are being mapped using an IBM XT and computer graphics programs. 


Dr. Cooper is working in the area of 2-keto acid biochemistry and pyridoxal 
phosphate enzymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of amino acids 
and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with short-lived radio- 
isotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed by positron emis- 
sion tomography. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular emphasis on the 
malate-asparate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states is also being 

Dr. Dreyfus' research examines phenotypic development of specific neurons of 
the central nervous system and emphasizes definition of environmental factors which 
may influence brain cell development. This work has concentrated on ontogeny of 
noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, as well as dopaminergic cells of the 
substantia nigra and peptidergic and cholinergic neurons of the striatum and nucleus 
basal is. 

Dr. Gardner studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmission to commu- 
nicate with one another. Neurons in ganglia of the mollusc Aplysia are probed by in- 
tracellular recording, voltage clamping, patch clamping, and computer-based analysis 
to yield principles of organization of cell networks. One project focuses on properties 
of transmitter-activated channels which are altered postsynaptic currents. A second 
project combines neurophysiology with artificial intelligence techniques to ask how 
neuronal biophysics coordinates the activity of neurons in a network. 

Dr. Gazzaniga utilizes neuropsychological approaches to behavior in man to ex- 
amine the effects of corpus commissurotomy ("split-brain" surgery) on cognition 
with reference to interhemispheric interaction. These neuropsychological studies are 
carried out on patients who have had NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance ) scans to de- 
termine the true extent of callosal separation. 

Dr. Gibbs" research focuses on the neurobiology of motivated behaviors, espe- 
cially the neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling feeding behavior in animals and 
the pathophysiology of eating disorders in humans. 

Dr. Gibson examines the relation of calcium, oxidative metabolism and neuro- 
transmitters to altered mental function and cell death. These interactions are exam- 
ined in animal models of conditions that alter mental function in man ( aging, hypoxia, 
and thiamin deficiency ) as well as in tissues from Alzheimer patients. In vivo neuro- 
transmitter metabolism is related to behavior and to molecular mechanisms in vitro. 
Human studies include enzyme measurements on autopsied brain as well as studies of 
lymphocytes, red blood cells and cultured skin fibroblasts. 

Dr. Grafstein is concerned with problems of nerve regeneration and the re- 
sponse of nerve cells to injury. Techniques used include light and electron micros- 
copy and radioactive isotope methods for analyzing the axonal transport of proteins 
and other cellular constituents. 

Dr. Halmfs current research on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa includes 
long term follow-up studies, investigation of appetite and satiety mechanisms in eat- 
ing disorder patients, assessing taste preferences, neuroendocrine investigations and 
psychological assessments. 

Dr. lacovittfs research activities are directed towards the study of the develop- 
ing nervous system. She is examining the principles which govern phenotypic expres- 
sion of particular neurotransmitters in neurons of the peripheral and central nervous 

Dr. Job's main interests are the biochemistry and molecular genetics of neuro- 
transmitter enzymes and receptors, and neurospecific protein. Multidisciplinary stud- 


ies with molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and histochemists include the 
structural analyses of genes coding for neurotransmitter enzymes, gene regulation at 
the transcriptional level, quantitative analysis of mRNAs and gene expression during 
development and aging. 

Dr. LeDoux studies the neural pathways mediating emotional information pro- 
cessing and memory. Classical conditioning techniques are used to endow sensory 
stimuli with emotional significance. Through the use of anatomical tracing, lesion, the 
electrophysiological recording techniques, the contribution of various brain areas 
and their fiber connections to the coding of stimulus meaning is analyzed. 

Dr. Leiy is developing techniques for predicting which comatose patients will re- 
cover and which will not. These efforts include utilization of positron emission tomo- 
graphic scanning to study unconscious patients. He collects detailed clinical informa- 
tion on patients with stroke so that methods for predicting recovery from stroke can 
be developed as they have been for coma. Development of an easily-utilized data en- 
try and analysis system designed to accept serial clinical data on patients with a vari- 
ety of neurological illnesses is an integral part of these efforts. He is also investigating 
effects of tissue plasminogen activator ( t-PA ) in patients with acute stroke. 

Dr. Mann s research focuses on aminergic receptor regulation and transmission 
abnormalities in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Human postmor- 
tem brain tissue, peripheral blood cells with beta adrenergic and serotonergic re- 
ceptor complexes and related animal models are utilized to study the normal and 
diseased state. The laboratory has a particular interest in the neurochemical cor- 
relates of aggressiv e and anxiety disorders, suicidal behavior and the action of 

Dr. Okamoto investigates pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic bases of the 
tolerance and dependence produced by general CNS depressants. Barbiturates, alco- 
hol and benzodiazepines are the prototypes for the study. Synaptic dysfunctions in 
neonates born under the influence of these drugs will also be investigated. 

Dr. Pasternak is studying the molecular pharmacology of centrally active analge- 
sics. Work in the laboratory currently is focused upon the biochemical and pharma- 
cological characterization of the various opiate receptor subtypes. One goal of the 
laboratory includes examining membrane-bound and affinity-purified receptors and 
their potential coupling with effector systems. Another is the correlation of the var- 
ious subtypes with specific opiate actions in vivo. Finally, the anatomical localization 
of these sites within the central nervous system is studied with quantitative autora- 
diography. Many of these approaches have utilized a series of opiate affinity labels de- 
veloped within the laboratory. 

Dr. Picket studies ultrastructural synaptic interactions between monoaminergic 
and peptidergic neurons in brain. Present research is directed toward a more com- 
plete understanding of the synaptic circuitry betw een neurons containing specific 
transmitters in the basal ganglia and in brainstem nuclei associated with central 
cardiovascular regulation. Specific interactions between central monoaminergic and 
peptidergic neurons are being examined in the adult and developing rat brain using 
immunocytochemicaJ markers and electron microscopy. The peptides of current in- 
terest include opioids, substance P neurotensin, and angiotensin. 

Dr. Plum, Chairman of the Department of Neurology; focuses his research on 
cerebral metabolism in disease states and the identification of cellular-subcellular 
mechanisms responsible for ischemic cell death. 


Dr. Reis' research interests are the central neural and neurochemical mecha- 
nisms governing control of the autonomic nervous system, cerebral blood flow and 
metabolism. His research also includes mechanisms governing the death of brain neu- 
rons in response to aging and injury. 

Dr. Rottenbergs studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism using positron 
emission tomography ( PET ) have focused on tissue pH, steroid-induced modifications 
of the blood-brain barrier and the metabolic pathology of the AIDS Dementia Com- 
plex. Ongoing studies are concerned with the metabolic correlates of higher integra- 
tive functions, including attention, and the functional anatomy of subcortical 

Dr. Ruggiero's interests include: anatomical and neurochemical pathways in 
brain which maintain normal resting levels of arterial blood pressure; neural sub- 
strates of the baroreceptor reflex; pathways underlying the cerebellar regulation of 
autonomic activities and cerebral blood flow; areas of autonomic representation in 
cerebral cortex and brainstem reticular formation; adrenaline synthesizing neurons 
and their pathways in the central nervous system. 

Dr. Sechzer's research interests include early development, behavioral toxicology, 
sensory receptors, and neural mechanisms of memory and learning, her current ac- 
tivities include: ( 1 ) The effect of lithium chloride on maternal behavior and early de- 
velopment; (2 ) Olfactory and gustatory thresholds in depression; ( 3 ) Bioethical issues 
concerning the use of animals in research education. 

Dr. Smith is interested in the behavioral neuroscience of eating and its disorders. 
Current experiments include the measurement of central monoamines during eating 
behavior, the role of gut peptides, such as cholecystokinin, to stop eating, animal 
models of eating disorders using genetic and sham feeding rats, and the experimental 
analysis of taste and eating in human patients with various types of eating disorders. 

Dr. Stokes studies neuroendocrine function in affective disease. Measurements of 
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HYPAC ) function at various levels of this axis 
are obtained in patients with depression vs healthy normal controls and patients with 
other psychiatric diagnoses. Current specific interests include: response of the 
HYPAC system to administration of CRF, ACTH, dexamethasone and adrenocortical 
steroid blockers, pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone, measurement of multiple adre- 
nal steroids, investigation of the relationship between HYPAC function and biogenic 
amine and sympathetic nervous system activity. A second area of interest is the inves- 
tigation of lithium pharmacokinetics and the pharmacology -toxicology' of lithium iso- 
topes in animals and humans. 

Dr. Teitelman's research interests include the cellular events controlling the 
expression of neurospecific proteins, such as neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes 
in autonomic ganglia of avian and mammalian embryos. Another area of her active re- 
search revolves around mechanisms involved in the differentiation of the endocrine 
cells of pancreatic islets from cells transiently expressing neurospecific enzymes. 
The techniques used in these studies include tissue culture, biochemistry and 

Dr. Young is interested in approaching relationships between brain neurotrans- 
mitter function and behaviors by studying major affective illness developing in late 
life. Indices of brain catecholaminergic function and behaviors are studied in individ- 
uals when symptomatic and after treatment. The laboratory measures applied include 
neurotransmitter metabolite excretion, neuroendocrine tests, brain imaging, and psy- 
chotropic drug concentrations. 


Recent Publications 

Baker, H. (with Spencer, R. ), Transneuronal transport of peroxidase-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin 
( WGA-HRP) from the olfactory epithelium to the brain of the adult rat. Exp. Brain Res. 63:461 — 
473, 1986. 

Baker, H. Species differences in the distribution of substance P and ty rosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity 
in the olfactory bulb./. Comp. Neurol. 252.206-236, 1986. 

Black, I. B. (with AdlerJ. E., Dreyfus, D. FJonakait, G. M., Katz, D. M., LaGamma, E. E, and Markey K. M ), 
Neurotransmitter plasticity at the molecular level. Science 225:1266- 1270, 1984. 

Black, 1. B. (with Adler, J. E., Dreyfus, C. E, Friedman, W.J., and LaGamma, E. F ), Experience and the bio- 
chemistry of information storage in the nervous system. Science, in press. 

Cooper. A.J. L (with Mora, S. M.. Cruz, N. E, and Gelbard, A. S. ), Cerebral ammonia metabolism in hyper- 
ammonemic rats./. Neurocbem. 44:1716-1723, 1985. 

DreyfiiS, C. F (with Bohn, M. C., Friedman, W.J., and Markey, K. A. ), Glucocorticoid effects on phenylethan- 
olamine N-methyltransferase ( PNMT ) in explants of embryoinic rat medulla obolongata. Brain Res., 
in press. 

Dreyfus, C. F (with Martinez, H. J, Joriakait, G. M., and Black, 1 B. ), NGF selectively increases cholinergic 
markers but not neuropeptide in rat basal forcbrain in culture. Brain Res., in press. 

Dreyfus, G. F (with Friedman, W. J., Markey K. A., and Black, I. B. ), Depolarizing stimuli increase tyrosine 
hydroxylase in the mouse locus coeruleus in culture. Brain Res.. 3 "9:2 16-222, 1986. 

Gardner, D. Variations in amplitude and time course of inhibitory postsynaptic currents./ NeurophysioL 
36:1424- 1438, 1986 

Gardner, D. (with Ruff, R. L, and White, R. L ). Choline acts as agonist and blocker for Apfysia cholinergic 
synapses./. NeurophysioL 51:1 — 15, 198 4 

Ciazzaniga, M. S. (with Holtzman, J. D., Deck. M., and Lee, B. C. P. ), MR1 assessment of human callosal sur- 
gery with neuropsychological correlates. Neurology, 35( 12 ):F63- 1766, 1985. 

(iazzaniga, M. S., Advances in cognitive ncuroscicnccs: Hie problem of information storage in the human 
brain. In: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory. Lynch, G., McGaughJ. L, and Weinberger. N. M., 
eds., The Guilford Press, New York, pp. "8-88. 1984. 

(iibbs, J. (with Smith, G. P ), The neurocndocrinology of postprandial satiety In: Frontiers in Neuroendocri- 
nolQgy, Vol. 8, Martini, L and Ganong. W E, eds.. Raven Press. New York. pp. 223-2 45, 1984. 

Gibbs.J.. Effect of bombesin on feeding behavior LifeSci 37:147- 15 3. 1985. 

Ciibson, Ci. E. (with Freeman, G. B., and Nielsen, P), Monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism and locomo- 
tor activity during chemical hypoxia./, of Neurocbem. 46:733—738, 1986. 

Gibson, Ci. E. (with Peterson, C, Nicholls, D. G. ), Subsynaptosomal calcium distribution during hypoxia and 
3,4-diaminopyridine treatment./. Neurocbem. 45:1779—1790, 1985. 

Grafstein, B. (with Burmcister, D. W ), Removal of optic tectum prolongs the cell body reaction of axotomy 
in goldfish retinal ganglion cells Brain Res. 327:45—51, 1985. 

Grafstein, B. (with Perry, G. W and Burmeister, D. W. ), Changes in protein content of goldfish optic nerve 
during degeneration and regeneration./ Neurocbem. 44:1142—1151, 1985. 

Halmi, K. A. Satiety and taste in eating disorders. In: Disorders of Eating Behavior. A Psychoneuroendocrine 
Approach. Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 60, (eds. ) E. Ferrari & E Brambilla, Pergamon Press, NY, 
1986, p. 199-203 

Halmi, K. A., (with Eckert, E., LaDu, T, and Cohen, J. ), "Anorexia Nervosa: Treatment efficacy of cyprohep- 
tadine and amitriptyline," Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 43:177- 181, 1986. 

Iacovitti, L ( with Joh, T. EE, Albert, V R., Reis, D. J., and Teitelman, G. ), Partial expression of catecholamin- 
ergic traits in cholinergic chick ciliary ganglion: studies in vivo and in vitro. Dev. Biol., 110:402- 
412, 1985. 

Iacovitti, L. (with Lee, J, Joh, T. EL, and Reis, D.J. ), Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in neurons of cul- 
tured cerebral cortex: Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in neurons of the CNS./. Neurosci. 
7:1246-1270, 1987. 


Joh, T. H. (with Baetge, E. E., and Suh, Y-H. ), Complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of bo- 
vine phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase: Partial amino acid homology- with rat tyrosine hy- 
droxylase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5454-5458, 1986. 

Joh, T. H. (with Carroll, J., Evinger, M., Hyman, S., and Goodman, H. ), Regulation of gene expression for cate- 
cholamine enzymes. UCLA Symposium on Molecular Biology of Human Brain, 1987, in press. 

LeDouxJ. E. (with Ruggiero, D. A., and Reis, D.J. ), Projections to the subcortical forebrain from anatomi- 
cally denned regions or the medial geniculate body in the rat./. Comp. Neurol. 242:182-213, 1985. 

LeDouxJ. E. Emotion. Handbook of Physiology. The Nervous System, V, 419-459, 1987. 

Levy, D. E. (with Caronna, J. J., Singer, B. H., Lapinski, R. H., Frydman, H., and Plum, E ), Predicting outcome 
from hypoxic-ischemic coma./. Amer. Med. Assoc. 253:1420- 1426, 1985. 

Mann, J. J. (Petito, C, McBride, P A., Stanley M., Chin, J., and Philogue, A. ), Age and gender effects upon 

amine receptors and monoamine oxidase in postmortem human brain. In: Clinical and Pharmaco- 
logical Studies in Psychiatric Disorders, Burrows, G. D. and Norman, T. R., eds.,Jon Libbey, London, 

Okamoto, M. (with Rao, S., and Walewski, J. L. ), Effect of dosing frequency on the development of physical 
dependence and tolerance to pentobarbital./. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 238:1004- 1008, 1986. 

Okamoto, M., Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. In: 
Mechanisms of Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54, pp. 33-347, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Ling, G. S. E, Spiegel, K., Lockhart, S. H. ), Separation of opioid analgesia from respira- 
tory depression: evidence for different receptor mechanisms./. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 232:149- 
155, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Goodman, R. R. ), Visualization of mu, opiate receptors in rat brain using a computer- 
ized autoradiographic subtraction technique. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:6667-6671, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Hahn, E. E, Nishimura, S., and Goodman, R. R. ), Irreversible opiate agonists and an- 
tagonists: II. Evidence against a bivalent mechanism of action for opiate azines and diacylhydra- 
zones./. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 235:839-845, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Hahn, E. E, Itzhak, Y, Nishimura, S., and Johnson, N. ), Irreversible opiate agonists and 
antagonists: III. Phenylhydrazone derivatives of naloxone andoxymorphone./. Pharmacol. Exp. 
Ther. 235:846-850, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Wood, R L), Multiple mu opiate receptors. Life Sci. 38:1889- 1898, 1986. 

Pickel, V. M. (with Bouyer, J. J., Park, D. H., and Joh, T. H. ), Chemical and structural analysis of the relation 
between cortical inputs and tyrosine hydroxylase-containing terminals in rat neostriatum. Brain 
Res. 302.267-275, 1984. 

Pickel, V. M. (with Joh, T. H., Chan, J., and Beaudet, A. ), Serotoninergic terminals: Ultrastructure and synap- 
tic interaction with catecholamine-containing neurons in the medial nuclei of the solitary tracts. 
/. Comp. Neurol. 225:291-301, 1984. 

Reis, D.J. The CI area of rostral ventrolateral medulla: role in tonic and reflex regulation of arterial pres- 
sure. In: Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Regulation. A. Magro, W. Osswald, 
D. Reis and P Vanhoutte (eds. ), Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York, pp. 487—502, 1986. 

Reis, D. J. (with ladecola, C. ), Regulation by the brain of its blood flow and metabolism: Role of intrinsic 

neuronal networks and circulating catecholamines. In: Neural Regulation of Brain Circulation, Vol. 
8, Eric K. Fcrnstrom Symposium, E. Owman and J. E. Hardebo (eds. ) Elsevier Science Publ. 1986. 

Rottenberg, D. A. ( with Jarden, J. O., Dhawan, V, Poltorak, A., PosnerJ. B ), Positron emission tomographic 
measurement of blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor transport of Mi Rb: The effect of dexamethasone 
and whole brain radiation therapy. Ann. Neurol. 18:636—646, 1985. 

Rottenberg, D. A., Intracranial hypotension, intracranial hypertension, pseudo-tumor cerbri, hydrocepha- 
lus. In: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 17th Edition, Wyngaarden, J. B., Smith, L H., and Plum, E, eds. 
W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1984. 

Rottenberg, D. A. (with GinosJ. Z., Kearfott, KJ. Junck, L., Dhawan, V, and Jarden, J. O. ), In Vivo measure- 
ment of brain tumor pH using [ "C|DMO and positron emission tomography. Ann. Neurol. 17:70—79, 

Ruggiero, D. A. (with Ross, C. A., Anwar, M., Park, D. H.Joh, T. H., and Reis, D.J.), Distribution of neurons 
containing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in medulla and hypothalamus of rat./ Comp. 
Neurol. 239:127-154, 1985 


Ruggiero, D. A. (with Mraovitch, S., Granata, A. R., Anwar, M., and Reis, D.J. ), A role of insular cortex in car- 
disovascular function./. Comp. Neurol. 257:189-207, 1986. 

Sechzer, J. A. (with Lieberman, K. W, Alexander, G. A., Weidman, D., and Stokes, P E. ), Aberrant parenting 
and delayed offspring development in rats exposed to lithium. Biol. Psych. 21:1258- 1266, 1986. 

Sechzer, J. A. (with Lieberman, K. W and Alexander, G.J. ), Stable isotopes of lithium, dissimilar biochemical 
and behavioral effects. Experientia 42:985-987, 1986. 

Smith. G. P ( with Bourbonais, K., Jerome, C, and Simansky, K.J. ), Sham feeding of sucrose increases the ra- 
tio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid to dopamine in the hypothalamus. Pharmacol. Biochem. Be- 
hav. 26:585-591, 1987. 

Smith, G. P ( with Schneider, L H., and Gibbs, J. ), D-Z selective receptor antagonists suppress sucrose sham 
feeding in the rat. Brain Res. Bull. 17:605-6 11, 1986. 

Stokes, P E. ( with Sikes, C. ). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in affective disorders. In: Psychophartna- 
cology: A Third Generation of Progress ( H. Y. Meltzer, ed. ). New York: Raven Press, pp. 589—607, 

Stokes, P E. (with Maas, J. W., Davis, J. M., Koslow, S. H.. Casper, R. C, and Stoll, P M. ), Biogenic amine and 
metabolite levels in depressed patients with high versus normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocor- 
tical activity. Amer. J. Psychiat. l44( 7 ): 1987 in press 

Teitelman, G. ( with Joh, T. H., Grayson, L, Park. D. H., Reis. D. J., and Iacovitti, L ), Cholinergic neurons of 
the chick ciliary ganglia express adrenergic traits in vivo and in vitro. J. Neurosci 5( 1 ):29— 30, 

Young, R. C. (with Alexopoulos, G. S . Shamoian, C. A., Manley, M. W, Dhar. A. K., and Kurt, H. ), Plasma 10- 
hydroxynortriptyline in elderly depressed patients. Clin. Pharmacol Ther. 35(4 ).54()— 544, 1984. 

Young, R. C. (with Alexopoulos. G S., Shamoian, C A. ). Dissociation of motor responses from mood and 
cognition in a Parkinsonian patient treated with EGT. Biol. Psychiat 20 506- 569, 1985. 



Joseph R. Bertino 
Walter W. Y. Chan 
Ting-Chao Chou 
Diane E Felsen 
Owen W. Griffith 
Charles E. Inturrisi 
Roberto Levi 
Mauricio Montal 

Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Marcus M. Reidenberg 
Arleen B. Rifkind 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Hazel H. Szeto 
Kyoichi A. Watanabe 

Research Activities 

The Graduate Pharmacology- Program offers a broad spectrum of training opportuni- 
ties from the molecular level to whole organism pharmacology. 

Dr. Bertino is interested in the transfer of drug resistant genes into hematopoetic 
cells: Both electroporation and viral vectors have been studied as methods of intro- 
ducing drug resistant genes ( chloramphenicol-acetyl transferase; an altered dihydro- 


folate reductase from 3T6 cells) into mammalian cells in culture, and into bone mar- 
row cells. This method appears to be a powerful one for introducing substances into 
cells that are ordinarily excluded, and thus study their intracellular activity. The aim 
is to produce long-term expression of drug resistant genes in hematopoetic stem 
cells. Both in vitro (CFU t ) and in vivo (CFU S ) studies are being pursued in mice. The 
purpose of these studies is to produce drug resistance of marrow stem cells, thus al- 
lowing larger doses of the desired drug to be utilized for therapy. 

Site specific mutagenesis of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. By using oligo- 
nucleotides with specific base changes, it has been possible to synthesize full-length 
cDNAs containing the desired mutation via the M-13 cloning system. The purpose of 
these studies is to better understand the effects of specific amino acid substitutions 
on substrate and inhibitor binding, and to hopefully develop an altered enzyme with a 
decreased affinity for methotrexate, but with good catalytic activity. 

Development of a rapid in vitro test for detection of resistance to methotrexate 
and trimetrexate: Work has continued, utilizing leukemia cells from patients sensitive 
and resistant to methotrexate, to determine the degree and mechanism of drug 

Studies with the new antifolate, trimetrexate: A phase 1 study has been com- 
pleted. In rodent models, this drug was found to synergize with Carboxypeptidase G, 
a folate depleting enzyme, and when utilized following methotrexate treatment. Clini- 
cal studies are planned using these combinations. 

Dr. Chan is interested in the functions and interactions of prostaglandins and 
neurohypophysial peptides in the kidney and the uterus. Current research covers in- 
vestigative studies from subcellular levels to the whole organism. Certain analogs of 
oxytocin and vasopressin have been found to stimulate urinary sodium and water ex- 
cretion. This renal effect of the peptide appears to be mediated by renal prostaglan- 
din release. The biochemical mechanisms of this peptide-induced prostaglandin re- 
lease is the principal concern of our research. Also studied are the renal activities of 
peptide analogs specifically synthesized for the project with the aim to discover spe- 
cific prostaglandin-releasing peptides that may be useful for the treatment of renal 

In the uterus, the roles of prostaglandins and oxytocin in the regulation of uter- 
ine contractions and termination of pregnancy are investigated. This research seeks 
an understanding of the mechanism of initiation of labor, especially relating to pre- 
term labor. Oxytocin-receptor and gap-junction formations in myometrial cells are 
important biochemical and morphological markers in the initiation of labor. Accord- 
ingly, a study is made of the effects of prostaglandins and oxytocin on the density of 
oxytocin-receptors and on the formation of gap-junctions in myometrial cells. Highly 
potent oxytocin antagonists have been synthesized for this project and their applica- 
tion in the prevention of preterm labor in the pregnant rat model will be investigated. 
Also studied are the physiological roles of ovarian oxytocin and uterine prostaglan- 
dins in the function of the corpus luteum, as well as the potential of intervention of 
this ovarian-utero axis in the regulation of fertility or as causal factor in abortion. 

Dr. Chou's major research objectives are the study of: ( 1 ) the mechanisms of ac- 
tion of antitumor and antiviral agents; ( 2 ) the biochemical and pharmacological bases 
for the selectivity of effects on different targets; and (3) the derivation of theoretical 
formulations for dose-effect relationships that permits the automated computer analy- 
sis of relative potency and therapeutic index and facilitates the study of the interac- 
tion of multiple drugs in combination chemotherapy. The compounds of current in- 


terest include potent antiherpes viral agents, anti-human immunodeficiency virus 
(anti-H IV) agents, classical antifolate analogs and lipid-soluble antifolates. Emphasized 
are pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and preclinical toxicology, the determina- 
tion of affinity and efficacy of drug interaction with enzymes or other targets, the elu- 
cidation of molecular events following the binding or incorporation of a drug into ma- 
cromolecules, and the development of computer programs for drug evaluation, 
especially the synergism/antagonism of drugs in combinations. Currently several of 
the compounds mentioned above are in clinical trials. Also, software for dose-effect 
analysis has recently been developed for microcomputers. 

Dr. Felsen is interested in the role of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAMs; prosta- 
glandins, hydroxy acids and leukotrienes ) and other mediators of inflammation (e.g., 
platelet-activating factor) in renal and hepatic function. The role of these compounds 
both in vivo and /'// vitro is studied using a combination of techniques. These include 
measurement of renal blood flow, both isotopically and nonisotopically, glomerular fil- 
tration rate and other parameters of renal function (Na + and K + excretion, water ex- 
cretion, etc. ). In vitro, both isolated organs and cell culture techniques are used for 
studies of renal and hepatic cells. These methods may provide an understanding of 
the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of AAMs and other inflamma- 
tory mediators in different models of renal and hepatic disease 

Dr. Griffith s research invok es the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of en- 
zyme selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used both to evaluate 
and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact animals. Recent 
studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and cysteine metabolism. 
Knzyme-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both glutathione biosynthesis 
and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extracellular cystine formation to 
be controlled were also developed. The inhibitors were shown to be useful in treat- 
ing animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative killing of tumor cells, and prevent- 
ing the formation of leukotriene C. In other studies, novel carnitine analogs were syn- 
thesized as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase and were shown to block long- 
chain fatty acid oxidation in vivo. In mice with diabetes, a disorder characterized by 
underutilization of glucose and overutilization of fats, these compounds prevent ke- 
toacidosis and restore normal blood glucose levels. Studies are continuing in which 
carnitine analogs are used to probe the regulator} interactions between carbohydrate 
and fatty acid metabolism. 

Dr. Inturrisi is developing a scientific basis for the use of opioid analgesics in 
the management of pain. Research is conducted at the molecular, receptor and 
patient levels. 

The role of neurogenic and hormonal factors in the regulation of mRNA tran- 
scription and opioid peptide biosynthesis in CNS and adrenal medullary tissues is 
being investigated by use of high performance liquid chromatography, tracer tech- 
niques and cDNA probes. 

Chronic treatment with opioid antagonists increases opioid binding in the cen- 
tral nervous system and produces an increase in the analgesic activity of morphine. 
Studies are being conducted on the functional and molecular consequences of these 
effects with respect to dosage, strain and species differences, development of toler- 
ance and dependence, and mediation at spinal and supraspinal sites. 

Clinical studies are aimed at developing pharmacologic models from patient data 
that can be used to improve analgesic therapy and provide insight into the quantita- 
tive aspects of the development of tolerance to opioids in these patients. Of special in- 


terest are the value of newer opioids, opioid peptides and novel routes of administra- 
tion in the management of pain in cancer patients. 

Dr. Levi examines the possibility that mediators of inflammation and immune hy- 
persensitivity cause cardiac dysfunction and play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden 
death, heart attacks, and cardiac failure. The molecular bases of the negative ino- 
tropic effect of leukotrienes platelet-activating factor and histamine, as well as the 
electrophysiological and biochemical effects of these mediators are being studied. 
Further, the relevance of complement activation and anaphylatoxin generation in car- 
diac hypersensitivity is being investigated. The possible physiological role of endoge- 
nous cardiac histamine as a modulator of adrenergic responses is being uncovered. 
The receptors mediating this histamine-induced modulation are being sought and the 
molecular mechanisms of this modulation are being assessed. 

Dr. MontaVs laboratory is interested in the molecular basis for cell communica- 
tion, signal transduction and excitable ion channels. 

Dr. Okamoto studies the pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic bases of the 
drug independence caused by general central nervous system depressants in adults 
and neonates exposed to drugs during their fetal period. Barbiturates, benzodiaze- 
pines and alcohol are the prototype drugs for these studies. 

Ongoing studies involve development of analytical procedures for the determi- 
nation of sedative-hypnotic drugs and their pharmacologically active metabolites, 
steroids, biogenic amines, and polypeptides in biofluids; neuroelectrophysiologic and 
behavioral monitoring of acute and chronic drug actions, investigation of functional 
and cellular mechanisms for the chronic effects produced to these drugs. 

Dr. Pasternak studies the biochemical and pharmacological properties of various 
subclasses of opiate receptors within the central nervous system. Molecular ap- 
proaches include binding studies and affinity labeling of receptors using a series of ir- 
reversible opiate agonists and antagonists developed and synthesized in this labora- 
tory. Computerized quantitative autoradiographic studies are aimed at the 
distribution of the various subtypes of receptors complement the biochemical stud- 
ies. In addition to these molecular studies, the biochemically defined binding sub- 
types are correlated with specific opiate actions, including analgesia, respiratory 
depression, gastrointestinal motility and hormone modulation, using classical phar- 
macological techniques. Again, the selective affinity labels developed in this labora- 
tory have proven invaluable in these studies. 

Dr. Reidenberg pursues one of the major questions in clinical pharmacology: 
Why do different people react differently to the same dose of the same drug? His pro- 
gram in clinical pharmacology addresses this question in a number of ways. He has 
learned how genetically controlled rates of drug metabolism alter dose-response and 
has systematically studied how decreasing kidney function modifies drug action. The 
information gained from these studies has been incorporated into the mainstream of 
medicine and therapeutics. 

The elderly are a class of patients tor whom more knowledge about individuali- 
zation of drug therapy would be useful. A principle abnormality in drug handling by 
the body associated with aging is the decline in rate of drug excretion because of the 
decline in kidney function. Data in man and in experimental animals indicate that 
most individuals "adapt" to continuous exposure to modest levels of nephrotoxic 
chemicals in their environment. Present research is designed to learn more about this 
"adaptation" process to gain information about why kidney function declines as peo- 
ple age. 


Dr. RifkiruTs interest in environmental toxicology has led to the investigation of 
the biochemical mechanisms of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin toxicity. Toxic 
polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins are known to bind to a cytosolic and nuclear 
receptor known as the Ah receptor which controls the expression of a group of gene 
products, the major one being a form of cytochrome P-450 known as cytochrome 
P-448. Although induction of hepatic cytochrome P-448 regularly accompanies PAH 
toxicity it does not directly cause the toxicity. In investigating how receptor activa- 
tion leads to the various toxic changes, it was found that treatment with toxic PCBs 
and dioxins increases the hepatic metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome 
P-450 and also that toxic PCBs and dioxins cause cardiac contractile dysfunction. 
Current studies focus on the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in producing the 
toxic manifestations of PCBs and dioxins and the nature of the biochemical changes 
accompanying the decreased cardiac contractile responsiveness in PCB and dioxin 
treated animals. 

Dr. Sirotnates research focuses on ( 1 ) molecular targets and other cellular bio- 
chemical determinants important to selective antitumor action of various categories 
of cytotoxic antimetabolites; ( 2 ) cytoplasmic membrane transport of pharmacologic 
agents; (3) molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance of tumor cells to antineo- 
plastic agents; and (4 ) the regulation of folate and nucleoside transporter gene 

Folates play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of macromolecules. Access of tumor 
cells to exogenous plasma folate is made possible by the existence in the cytoplasmic 
membrane of a specific high-affinity transport system. 

Using c-DNA probes, the genetic regulation and molecular biology of this system 
are now being examined in models which constitutively over-produce or under- 
produce the transport protein and during induction of tumor cells to terminal 

Folate and nucleoside analogs effectively accumulate in tumor cells via plasma 
membrane systems normally transporting natural folates and nucleosides. To under- 
stand the selective antitumor action of folate and nucleoside analogs, studies are 
being conducted of the properties and multiplicity of their cellular membrane trans- 
port, their interaction with enzymic and macromolecular targets, their intracellular 
metabolic disposition and their pharmacokinetic behavior. Mechanisms of acquired 
resistance in tumor cells to these antimetabolites and other cytoxic agents at the 
level of their cellular membrane transport are also studied by the investigation 
of alterations. 

Dr. Szeto's laboratory is interested in the effects of prenatal drug exposure on the 
development of the central nervous system, particularly in the development of sleep- 
wake behavior and the regulation of breathing in the fetus and neonate. As such inves- 
tigations cannot be carried out in humans, the fetal lamb is used as an animal model. 
Techniques that permit continuous intrauterine recording of fetal electrocortical ac- 
tivity, eye movements, postural muscle activity, and diaphragmatic activity, resulted in 
the finding that acute prenatal exposure to opiates and benzodiazepines can alter fe- 
tal behavioral and breathing activity. The effects of chronic opiate exposure on the 
maturation of sleep-wake behavior and respiration control are now being examined. 

Another area of study is the effect of maternal marijuana smoking on the fetus by 
introducing marijuana smoke into the maternal trachea and monitoring its effects on 
maternal and fetal neurobehavior, hemodynamics, metabolism and hormonal 


In addition, a variety of pharmacologic agents are being used to investigate the 
role of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that may potentially be in- 
volved in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior and respiratory control in the fetus. 

Dr. Watanabe is interested in synthetic photochemistry to enzyme reaction 
mechanisms. Major emphasis is on the chemical design and development of better an- 
ticancer and antiviral agents which interfere with selective DNA metabolism. On the 
basis of a biological and biochemical rationale, various sites on the molecules of natu- 
ral substances and synthetic derivatives with biological activities are chemically mod- 
ified so that these new molecules may inhibit specific enzyme reaction(s). Recent dis- 
coveries of novel carbohydrate reactions have resulted in the development of potent 
antiviral N-nucleosides. The novel heterocyclic chemistry discovered in this labora- 
tory has been employed in the development of C-nucleosides with potent anticancer 
activity 7 . Also, these heterocyclic reactions have been applied to the preparation of an- 
ticancer antifolates. These findings have led to the proposal of plausible mechanisms 
of action for tryptophan oxidizing enzyme and cytidine deaminase, on the basis of 
studies using simple chemically modified substrates. 

Recent Publications 

Bertino, J. R. (with Rodenhuis, S., McGuirc. J. J. and Narayanan. R. ). Development of an assay system for the 
detection and classification of methotrexate resistance in fresh human leukemia cells. Cancer Res. 
46:6513-1519, 1986. 

Bertino. J. R. (with Narayanan. R. Jastreboff, M. M., and Chiu. C. E ) In vivo expression of a nonselected 
gene transferred into murine hematopoetic stem cells by electroporation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. 
Commun. 141:1018-1024. 1986 

Chan. W Y. ( with Powell. A. M, Alvine, R, and Litt. I. E ). Menstrual PFG_,a. PGE, and TXA, in normal and dys- 
menorrheic women and their temporal relationship to dysmenorrhea. Prostaglandins 29:273— 
290, 1985. 

Chan, W Y ( with Hruby. V.J., Rockway T. W and Hlavacek, J. ), Design of oxytocin antagonists with pro- 
longed action: potential tocolytic agents for the treatment of preterm labor./ Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 
239:84-87, 1986. 

Chou, T.-C. ( with Talalay P ), Applications of the median-effect principle for the assessment of low-dose risk 
carcinogens and for the quantitation of synergism and antagonism of chemotherapeutic agents. In: 
New Avenues in Developmental Cancer Chemotherapy. Bristol Myers Symposium Series. K. R. Har- 
rap, ed., pp. 37-64, Academic Press. 1987 

Chou. T.-C. (with Chang. B. K. ). Schedule-dependent interaction of a-Difluoromethylornithine and Cis- 
Diamminedichloroplatinum ( II ) against pancreatic cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 4~ 7 :2247-2250. 

Felsen. D. ( with Loo, M. H.. Marion, D. N., Vaughan, E. D. and Albanese. C. T ). Effect of thromboxane inhibi- 
tion on renal blood flow in dogs with complete unilateral ureteral obstruction./ I rol. 136: 1343— 
1347, 1986. 

Felsen. D. (with Weisman. S. M. and Vaughan, E. D. ). Platelet-activating factor is a potent stimulus for renal 
prostaglandin synthesis: Possible significance in unilateral ureteral abstraction./ Pharmacol. Exper. 
Ther. 235:10-15. 1985. 

Griffith, (). W ( with Jcnkens. I). L ). Antiketogenic and hypoglycemic effects of aminocarnitine and aylami 
nocarnitines. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 83:290-294. 1986. 

Griffith. (). W. (with Weinstein. C. I.. ). Multiple forms of rat liver cystcinc-sulfinate decarboxylase. /. Biol. 
Chem. 262:7254-^263. 1987 

Inturrisi. C. E (with Yoburn. B. C. Eranklin. S. (). and Calvano. S. E. ). Regulation of rat adrenal medullary 
enkephalins by glucocorticoids. LifeSci 40:2495-2503, 1987 


Inturrisi, C. E. (with Colburn, W A., Kaiko, R. E, Houde, R. W and Foley, K. M. ), Pharmacokinetics and phar- 
macodynamics of methadone in patients with chronic pain. Clin. Pharmacol. Therap. 41:392—401, 

Levi, R. (with Wolff, A. A. ), Histamine and cardiac arrhythmias. Circ. Res. 58:1 - 16, 1986. 

Levi, R. (with Graver, L. M., Robertson, D. A., Becker, C. G. Weksler, B. B., and Gay W A. ), IgE-mediated hy- 
persensitivity in human heart tissue: Histamine release and functional changes./. Allergy Clin. 
Immunol. 77:709-714, 1986. 

Montal, M. Functional reconstitution of membrane proteins in planar lipid bilayer membranes. In: Tech- 
niques for Analysis of Membrane Proteins (C. I. Ragan and R. Cherry, eds. ) United Kingdom, Chap- 
man and Hall, Chapter 5, pp. 97- 128, 1986. 

Montal, M. (with Anholt, R., and Labarca, P ), The reconstituted acetylcholine receptor. In: Ion Channel Re- 
constituted ( C. Miller, ed. ) Plenum Publishing Corp., pp. 157-204, 1986. 

Okamoto, M., Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. In: 
Mechanisms of Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54:333-347 1985. 

Okamoto, M. (with Rao, S. N., Aaronson, L M., and Walewski, J. L ), Ethanol drug interaction with chlor- 
diazepoxide and pentobarbital. Alcoholism: Clin, and Exp. Res. 9516-521, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Goodman, R. R. ), Visualization of mu, opiate receptors in rat brain using a computer- 
ized autoradiographic subtraction technique, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. I SA. 82:6667—6671, 1985. 

Pasternak, G. W. (with Ling, G S. F, Spiegel, K. and Lockhart, S. H. ), Separation of opioid analgesia from res- 
piratory depression: evidence for different receptor mechanisms. /. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther 
232:149-155, 1985. 

Reidenberg, M. M. (with Aucoin, I). P. Peterson, M. E., Hurwitz, A. I., Drayer, D. E., Lahita, R. G., and Quimby, 
E W. ), Propylthiouracil induced immune mediated disease in cats./ Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 234:13- 
18. 1985. 

Reidenberg, M. M., Kidney function and drug action. New Eng. J. Med. 313:816-818, 1985. 

Rifkind, A. B. (with Quilley, C. P ), Prostaglandin release by the chick embryo heart is increased by 2, 3, 7, 8- 
tetrachlorodiben/.o p -dioxin and by other cy tochrome p-448 inducers. Biochem. Biophys. Res. 
Commun. 136:582-589, 1986. 

Rifkind, A. B. (with Sassa, S., Reyes, J., and Muschick, H. ), Poly chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon lethality, 

mixed-function oxidase induction and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase inhibition in the chick em- 
bryo: Dissociation of dose-response relationships Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. " 7 8:268— 279, 1985. 

Sirotnak, E M. ( with Jacobsen, D. M. and Yang, C-H ), Alteration of folate analogue transport following in- 
duced maturation of HL-60 leukemia cells. Early decline in mediated influx, relationship to commit- 
ment, and functional dissociation of entry and exit routes./ Biol. ( hem. 261:11150- 11155, 1986. 

Sirotnak, E M. (with BarruecoJ. R, Jacobsen, D. M., Chang, C-H., and Brockman, R. W ), Proposed mecha- 
nism of therapeutic selectively for 9-P-D-arabinofuranosy 1 2 -fluro-adenine against murine leukemia 
based upon lower capacities for transport and phosphorylating in proliferative intestinal epithelum 
compared to tumor cells. Cancer Res. 47:700-706, 1987. 

Szeto, H. H. (with Abrams, R. M., Cook, C. E., Davis, K. H., Niederreither, K., and Jaeger, M.J. ), Plasma A-9- 
tetrahydrocannabinol in pregnant sheep and fetus after inhalation of smoke from a marijuana ciga 
rette. Alcohol and Drug Research 6:36 1 - 369, 1986. 

Szeto, H. H. (with Zhu, Y-S. ), Cyclic variation in fetal heart rate and sympathetic activity. Am. J. Ohstet. 
Gynecol. 156: 1001 - 1005, 1987. 

Watanabe, K. A. (with Schinazi, R. E, Fox, J. J., and Nahmias, A.J. ), Activities of l-(2-Deoxy-2-fluoro-0-D-ara- 
binofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine and its metabolites against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cell 
culture and in mice infected intracerebrally with herpes simplex virus type 2. Antimicrobial 
Agents and Chemotherapy 29:77-84, 1986. 

Watanabe, K. A. (with Su, T-L, Huang, J-T, BurchenalJ. H., and Fox, J. J.), Synthesis and biological activities 
of 5-deaza analogues of aminopterin and folic acid./. Med. Chem. 29:709—715, 1986. 


Physiology and Biophysics 


Olaf S. Andersen 
Ellen Townes-Anderson 
Rodney E. Bigler 
Walter W. Y. Chan* 
Colin Fell 
Daniel Gardner 
Marvin C. Gershengorn 
Bernice Grafstein 
Roger L. Greif (Emeritus) 
Chin Ok Lee 
Roberto Levi* 
Chiann-Tso Lin 

Martin Lipkin 
Thomas Maack 
Lawrence Palmer 
Thomas G. Pickering 
Enrique M. Rabellino 
Barbara Rayson 
John P Reeves 
John L. Stephenson 
Bernd W. Urban 
Alan M. Weinstein 
Erich E. Windhager 

* Members of the Program in Pharmacology. For representative bibliography, see 

Research Activities 

Dr. Windhagefs studies are aimed at the elucidation of the mechanisms of ion and wa- 
ter transport by renal epithelial cells. The techniques used in Dr. Windhager's labora- 
tory include: isolated perfused renal tubule segments, intracellular measurement of 
ions by ion selective electrodes, electrophysiological techniques, isolated membrane 
techniques and renal micropuncture methods. Current work centers on the role of 
cytosolic calcium ions as regulators of ion and water transport in proximal tubules 
and collecting ducts of the kidney. Collaborating with Dr. Windhager are Drs. Heinz, 
Frindt, Lin and Jones. 

Dr. Grafstein investigates nerve regeneration and transport of material in nerve 
axons. She is currently studying regeneration of goldfish optic nerve. Some of the con- 
clusions reached in recent work are: Phosphorylation of axonally transported pro- 
teins is an important function in regeneration; block of physiological activity impairs 
regeneration by interfering with axonal transport of glycosylated constituents. Dr. 
Grafstein's laboratory uses the following techniques, among others, isotope tracer 
studies, electronmicroscopy high resolution autoradiography, and 2-dimensional gel 

Dr. Maack's studies are directed at the elucidation of the quantitative aspects and 
mechanisms of renal processing and actions of circulating proteins and peptide- 
hormones. The main findings in this regard are that the uptake of proteins by proxi- 
mal tubular cells is a high capacity-low affinity selective endocytic transport process. 
Disposal of absorbed protein is also a selective process which depends on an appro- 
priate acid pH of lysosomes. The renal processing of low molecular weight proteins 
and peptide hormones accounts for a major fraction of the plasma turnover of these 
substances. The results of these studies permitted a better understanding of the 


pathophysiology of proteinurias and hormonal disturbances in renal diseases. More 
recent studies deal with the renal processing and actions of atrial natriuretic factor, 
a novel hormone secreted by the heart which decreases blood pressure, regulates 
kidney function and increases salt excretion. The techniques used in Dr. Maack's 
laboratory include isolated perfused rat kidney, isolated tubule segments, cell cul- 
ture, receptor-hormone interactions and general biochemical and physiological 

Dr. Andersen is interested in the mechanisms by which ions cross membranes. 
His studies entail analysis of permeability characteristics of lipid bilayers, with em- 
phasis on the physical and chemical properties of proteins which serve as channel 
formers. The emphasis of the present work is on structure-function studies of mem- 
brane channels using site-specific amino acid substitutions, and on covalent modifica- 
tion of voltage-dependent sodium channels using group specific reagents. Techniques 
used in Dr. Andersen's laboratory include: single channel analysis, electrophysiologi- 
cal measurements, physico-chemical analysis, and computer simulations. 

Dr. Stephenson is interested in theoretical aspects of transport in biological sys- 
tems. Much of his recent research centers on transport of water and electrolytes in 
epithelia and in the kidney. One group of current studies focuses on the relation of 
medullary concentration gradients and the osmolality of final urine in the mammalian 
kidney to tubular and vascular permeabilities, flows, and architecture. A second proj- 
ect is to develop a mathematical model of electrolyte transport in the whole kidney, 
which includes electrolytes ( Na, K, CI, HC0 3 , H,PO„ H), glucose urea, protein os- 
motic forces, hydrostatic pressure, and electrical potential. Approaches to these prob- 
lems include both computer simulation and the development and theoretical analysis 
of mathematical models. 

Dr. Gershengorn's laboratory focuses on the understanding of hormonal regula- 
tion of cellular secretion. In particular, the stimulation of the anterior pituitary gland's 
secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin by thyrotropin-releasing hor- 
mone is under study. Research is now centered on the inositol lipid-calcium-protein 
kinase C pathway for signal transduction by TRH. 

Dr. Pickerings main area of research is concerned with development of im- 
proved methods for the noninvasive measurement of blood pressure. First, he is using 
ambulatory monitoring techniques to learn more about the causes of blood pressure 
variability in normal and hypertensive subjects. This work has shown that most of the 
observed circadian rhythm of blood pressure can be accounted for by changes of ac- 
tivity. Second, he is analyzing the causes and origins of Korotkoff sounds with a view 
to the development of a new technique for blood pressure measurement. 

Dr. Fell studies the reactivity to drugs and other stimuli of microvessels in rat and 
rabbit ears and rat mesentery, using the technique of ultravital microscopy. The tech- 
nique has been applied to studies of spontaneous vasomotion in rabbit ear arteries, 
and to the investigation of the effects of atrial natriuretic factor on vasoconstriction 
responses of rat mesenteric arteries. 

Dr. Gardner's laboratory studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmis- 
sion to communicate with one another. He is concerned with the biophysics of synap- 
tic transmission, as well as the properties of neuronal networks. Recent discoveries 
were: 1 ) choline activates inhibitory acetylcholine receptors oiAplysia buccal gan- 
glia, and 2 ) dual-function excitatory-inhibitory synapses coordinate the two phases of 
their postsynaptic potentials by a voltage-dependent change in duration. Techniques 
used by Dr. Gardner include electrophysiological voltage- and patch-clamping, com- 


puter data acquisition and analysis, and artificial intelligence methods for neuronal 

Dr. Lee investigates ionic mechanisms underlying changes in contractile force of 
cardiac muscle and ion transport across cardiac cell membrane. He recently demon- 
strated that cardiac glycosides increase cardiac muscle contractility by changing in- 
tracellular activities of sodium and calcium ions. Techniques used in Dr. Lee's labora- 
tory include: isolated cardiac Purkinje fibers and intracellular recordings with ion 
selective electrodes (Na, H and Ca). 

Dr. Palmer's research focuses on the mechanism of transepithelial Na reabsorp- 
tion by tight epithelia, and the control of this process by hormones and other factors. 
The nature of the transport system facilitating sodium movement across the apical 
membrane of epithelial cells is being elucidated using the toad urinary bladder and 
the mammalian cortical collecting tubule as a model epithelia. Techniques used in Dr. 
Palmer's laboratory include: patch-clamping, current-voltage analysis, and flux ratio 

Dr. Rabellind's research interests are primarily related to the study of the several 
cellular and molecular processes involved during the acquisition of functional com- 
petence by differentiating blood cells. In past studies he has investigated in the 
lymphoid, myeloid nd megakaryocytic series, the phenotypic evolution of developing 
marrow cells using monoclonal antibody technology and flow cytometry. Currently, 
studies are in progress to investigate protein synthesis, cell DNA distribution and syn- 
thesis, as well as RNA accumulation in developing megakaryocytes. Studies are also in 
progress to assess expression and changes of specific protein genes throughout mega- 
karyocytopoiesis using cDNA probes for different alpha granule proteins. 

Dr. Reeves' laboratory research is directed toward studying the activity of the 
sodium-calcium exchange system in membrane vesicles prepared from the plasma 
membranes (sarcolemmas) of heart cells. The sodium-calcium exchange system is a 
carrier-mediated transport process which directly couples the transmembrane move- 
ment of calcium ions to the movement of sodium ions in the opposite direction. It is 
thought to play an important role in regulating the force of contraction of cardiac 
muscle. Previous work has included characterizing the stoichiometry, kinetics and 
regulation of this transport process. Current efforts are done to identify and purify 
the membrane protein responsible for this activity. 

Dr. Ray son's research activities center on the investigation of the regulation of 
Na-K/ATPase ( Na pump) in kidney cells. Recent discoveries include the finding that 
intracellular Na levels regulate the number of active Na-K/ATPase enzyme sites in 
outer medullary tubular segments of the kidney. Current research is directed at the 
analysis of the cellular mechanisms involved. Techniques used in Dr. Rayson's labora- 
tory include: superfusion of tubular segments of the kidney, protein purification, 
pulse-chase and in vitro translation experiments. 

Dr. Urban studies the molecular actions of general anesthetics on membrane ion 
channels. He is investigating the mechanisms by which anesthetics change sodium 
and potassium currents in nerves (squid giant axon) and which effects anesthetics 
have on single sodium channels (in lipid bilayer systems). Techniques used in Dr. 
Urban 's laboratory include: voltage-ciamp, electrophysiological techniques and lipid 

Dr. Weinstein is interested in the theory of solute and water transport across epi- 
thelia and developing a mathematical model of proximal tubular function using com- 
puter techniques. 


Recent Publications 

Andersen, O. S., Green, W. N., and Urban, B. W, Ion conduction through sodium channels in planar lipid bi- 
layers. In: Reconstitution of Ion Channels, ed. C. Miller, Plenum, New York, pp. 385-404, 1986. 

Andersen, O. S. (with Russell, E. W. B., Weiss, L. B., Navetta, E I., and Koeppe, II, R. E. ), Single-channel stud- 
ies on linear gramicidins with altered amino acid side chains. Effects of altering the bulk and polar- 
ity of the side chain at position 1 in gramicidin A. Biophys.J. 6 "73-686. 1986. 

Gardner, D., Variations in amplitude and time course of inhibitory postsynaptic currents./. Neiirophysiol. 
56:1424-1438, 1986. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Imai, A. ), Thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulates hydrolysis of phosphatidyli- 
nositol 4,5-bisphosphate transiently and of phosphatidylinositol persistently in rat pituitary cells in 
culture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:85^0, 1986. 

Gershengorn, M. C ( with Imai, A. ), Independent phosphatidylinositol synthesis in pituitary plasma mem- 
brane and endoplasmic reticulum. Nature ( Lond. ) 325:~'26, 1987 

Grafstein, B., and Burmeister, D. W, Removal of optic tectum prolongs the cell body reaction to axotomy in 
goldfish retinal ganglion cells. Brain Res. 32^:45- 51, 1985. 

Grafstein, B., Perry, G. W, and Burmeister, D. W, Changes in protein content of goldfish optic nerve during 
degeneration and regeneration./. Nenrochem. 44:1142—1151, 1985. 

Lee, C. O. (with Pecker, M. S., Im, W B., and Sonn, J. K_ ), Effect of norepinephrine and cyclic AMP on intra- 
cellular sodium activity and contractile force in canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. Circ. Res. 59:390— 
397, 1986. 

Lee, C ()., Im, W. B., and Sonn, J. K., Intracellular sodium ion activity: Reliable measurement and stimula- 
tion-induced change in cardiac Purkinje fibers. Canadian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. In press (May issue, 

Maack, T, and Wall, I) A., Endocytic uptake, transport, and catabolism of proteins by epithelial cells. Edito- 
rial Review A m.J. Physifk 248 ( Cell Phy siol. 17>C12-C20, 1985. 

Maack, T., Camargo, M.J. E, Kleinert, H. I)., Laragh, J. H., and Atlas, S. A., Atrial natriuretic factor: Structural 
and functional properties. Editorial Review. Kidney Internal 2^:60^-615, 1985. 

Palmer, L. G., Apical membrane K conductance in the toad urinary bladder./ Xtembr. Biol. 92:217-226, 

Palmer. L. G., and I rindt, G.. Amiloride-sensitive Na channels from the apical membrane of the rat cortical 
collecting tubule. Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. USA 83:2767-2770, 1986. 

Pickering, T. G., Harshfield, G. A , Devereux, R. B., and Laragh, J. H., What is the role of ambulatory blood 
pressure monitoring in the management of hypertensive patients? Hypertension, Vol. 7, No. 2:171 — 
177, 1985. 

Rabellino, E. M. (with Levene, R. B., Lamaziere J.-M. D., Broxmeyer, H. E., and Lu, L. ), Human megakary- 
ocytes. V. Changes in the phenotypic profile of differentiating megakaryocytes./ Exp. Med. 
161:457-474, 1985 

Rabellino, E. M. (with Levene, R. B., Williams, N. T., and Lamaziere, J.-M. D. ), Human megakaryocytes. IV 

Growth and characterization of clonable megakaryocyte progenitors in agar. Exp. Hematol. 15:181 — 
189, 1987. 

Rayson, B. M., and Gupta, R. K., -'Na NMR studies of rat outer medullary kidney tubules./. Biol. Chem. 
260:7276-7280, 1985. 

Rayson, B. M. and Gupta, R. K., Steroids, intracellular sodium levels, and Na + /K + -ATPase regulation./ Biol. 
Chem. 260.12740-12743, 1985. 

Reeves, J. P, and Pronnik, P, Modulation of Na-Ca exchange in sarcolemmal vesicles by int raves icular cal- 
cium. Am. J. Physiol. 252:C17-C23, 1987. 

Reeves, J. P (with Pena, P), Inhibition and activation of Na-Ca exchange activity by quinacrine. Am. J. 
Physiol 252:C24-C29, 1987 

Stephenson, J. L. (with Knepper, M. A. ), Urinary concentrating and diluting processes. In: Physiology of 
Membrane Disorders, eds., T. Andreoli, J. Hoffman, D. Fanestil, and S. Schultz, Plenum Publishing, 
chapter 39, pp. 713-726, 1986. 

Stephenson, J. L., Models of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Kidney Intl. 31:648-661, 1987. 


Urban, B. W. (with Haydon, D. A. ), The action of hydrophobic, polar, and some inhalation anesthetic sub- 
stances on the potassium current of the squid giant axon./ Physiol. 373:311-327, 1986. 

Urban, B. W. (with Levinson, S. R., Duch, D. S., and Recio- Pinto, E. ), The sodium channel from electrophorus 
electricus. Ann. N. Y.Acad. Sci. 479:162- 178, 1986. 

Weinstein, A. M., A mathematical model of the rat proximal tubule. Am. J. Physiol. 250:F860-873, 1986. 

Weinstein, A. M. Osmotic diuresis in a mathematical model of the rat proximal tubule. Am. J. Physiol. 
250:F874-F884, 1986. 

Windhager, E. E. (with Taylor, A. ), Cytosolic calcium and its role in the regulation of transepithelial ion and 
water transport. In: Physiology and Pathophysiology of Electrolyte Metabolism, eds., D. Seldin and 
G. Giebisch, Raven Press, pp. 1297- 1322, 1985. 

Windhager, E. E., Frindt, G., Lee, C. O., Yang, J. M., and Lee, C. O., Intracellular calcium ions as regulators of 
renal tubular sodium transport. Klin. Wochenschr. 64:847-852, 1986. 


Requirements and Course 

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and 
Manhattan Skyline, as seen from Cornell Medical 




For admission to the Graduate School of Med- 
ical Sciences an applicant must ( 1 ) have a bac- 
calaureate degree or the equivalent from a 
college or university of recognized standing, 
( 2 ) have adequate preparation in the chosen 
field of study, and ( 3 ) show promise of ability 
to pursue advanced study and research, as 
judged by his or her previous record. 

Inquiries about graduate study should be 
addressed to the Associate Dean of the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences, 1300 York Av- 
enue, New York, NY 1002 1 or to the Director 
of the Sloan-Kettering Division, 1275 York Av- 
enue, New York, NY 10021. 

Candidates may be admitted in September, 
February, or July, although places in the gradu- 
ate program for February and July may not be 
available because of prior commitments to ap- 
plicants for September admission. Applicants 
for February or July admission should corre- 
spond directly with the respective Program 
Director regarding the availability of places. 

Application material must be completed 
and returned to the Office of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences together with ( 1 ) 
official transcripts of records from all colleges 
and universities attended, ( 2 ) a statement of 
purpose of graduate study, and ( 3 ) two letters 
of recommendation from individuals in aca- 
demic positions who know the applicant 
professionally. In addition, scores from the 
Graduate Record Examinations ( GRE ) are re- 
quired to aid in the evaluation of an applicant. 
Application for taking the Aptitude (Verbal, 
Quantitative, and Analytical ) Test and the Ad- 
vanced Test of the GRE, must be made di- 
rectly to the Educational Testing Service, 
Graduate Record Examinations, Box 955, 
Princeton, NJ 08541. 

The proper Institution Code Number to 
use in your GRE application for the Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences ( New York City) is R 2 119-6. 

Applications for September or July admis- 
sion and all credentials, including official 
transcripts of records from all colleges and 
universities attended, must be received by 
the deadline of February 1. Because GRE 
scores are an important part of the applica- 
tion it is of decided advantage to the appli- 
cant, to submit these scores by the February 1 

Applications and credentials for February 
admission must be received by November 1. 

Application fee. A nonrefundable charge 
of $35 is made for filing an application for 

The completed application and all support- 
ing documents are initially screened by the 
credentials committee of the program to 
which the student is applying. Applicants who 
are considered potentially acceptable are 
usually called for a personal interview. At the 
time of interview, after discussing his or her 
interests with the members of the Program, 
the applicant may tentatively select a major 
sponsor. If accepted by the Program, an appli- 
cation is forwarded to the Credentials Review 
Committee and then to the Dean for final de- 
cision. A student is formally notified of ac- 
ceptance for study in the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences by a letter from the Dean. 
An applicant accepted for admission is re- 
quested to inform the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences of her or his plan to either 
accept or refuse the offer of admission within 
one month after the Dean's acceptance letter 
has been received. 

It is the policy of Cornell University to ac- 
tively support equality of educational and 
employment opportunity. No person shall be 
denied admission to any educational program 
or activity or be denied employment on the 
basis of any legally prohibited discrimination 
involving, but not limited to, such factors as 
race, color, creed, religion, national or ethnic 
origin, sex, age, or handicap. The University is 
committed to the maintenance of affirmative 
action programs which will assure the contin- 
uation of such equality of opportunity. 

Admission policies are also in conformity 
with the policy of New York State in regard to 
the American ideal of equality of opportunity 
as embodied in the Education Practices Act. 


An applicant is accepted by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences ( 1 ) as a degree 
candidate for the M.S. or Ph.D., or ( 2 ) as a pro- 
visional candidate. 

Provisional candidacy provides opportu- 
nity for a prospective degree candidate, 
whose educational preparation is difficult to 
evaluate, to begin graduate studies. On the ba- 
sis of the record of accomplishment in the 
first half of the academic year, the adviser or 


temporary Special Committee of a provisional 
candidate may recommend to the Dean that 
( 1 ) provisional candidacy be changed to de- 
gree candidacy ( 2 ) provisional candidacy be 
continued for the remainder of the academic 
year, or ( 3 ) provisional candidacy be termi- 
nated. A maximum of one academic year in 
the status of provisional candidacy is permit- 
ted and credit of a maximum of one residence 
unit may be allowed on petition, provided 
there is convincing evidence that perform- 
ance has been of the same quality as that re- 
quired of degree candidates. 

Special Students 

Special students are students who arc not de- 
gree candidates in either the Graduate School 
of Medical Sciences or the Medical C ollege 
and who are given permission by the respec- 
tive dean to take courses at either school. 
Special students must be degree candidates at 
other institutions and the courses taken at 
Cornell must be essential to their degree pro 
grams and are not offered by the institutions 
at which they are matriculated as degree can- 
didates as certified by the institutions. Enroll- 
ment as a special student is not intended as 
preparation for admission to degree programs 
at Cornell or elsewhere. 

In the case of the Graduate School of Medi- 
cal Sciences, special students are accepted 
only with the approval of the appropriate Pro 
gram Director Special students must demon- 
strate special qualifications in terms of prepa- 
ration and ability. They must register with the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences or in the 
Medical College and must pay all tuition and 
fees before being permitted to attend lectures 
or laboratory sessions. Tuition is computed on 
the basis of the ratio of course hours taken to 
the total hours of instruction lor the academic 
year ( 33 weeks of 40 hours ). There is a regis 
tration fee of S3 5. 

Degree Requirements 

Major and Minor Programs 

A candidate for the degree of Master of Sci- 
ence is required to register for study in one 
major and one minor program. Each program 
decides whether the Special Committee of a 
candidate for the Ph.D. degree must have two 
or three programs represented. Accordingly, a 
candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philoso- 

phy is required to register for study in one 
major and one or two minor programs. At 
least one of the minors must be outside the 
area of the major program. 

The Special Committee 

The general degree requirements of the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences are minimal 
in order to give maximum flexibility in choos- 
ing a desirable program of study. The stu- 
dent's program is determined with the aid 
and direction of a Special Committee, consist- 
ing of at least three faculty members chosen 
by the student from those programs that best 
fit his or her areas of interest. Satisfactory pro- 
gress toward a degree is judged by the com- 
mittee rather than by arbitrary standards im- 
posed by the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. There are no regulations of the Fac- 
ulty of the Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences governing the specific content of in- 
struction, courses, or grades to which the 
Special Committee must subscribe, except 
those imposed by the programs. The commit- 
tee is primarily responsible for the candidate's 
development as an independent scholar and 

No later than lour weeks after enrollment, a 
candidate must file a statement of the major 
and minor programs elected for study, after 
which the student must choose faculty mem- 
bers to represent the programs and to serve 
on a Special Committee. The major sponsor 
usually advises the student concerning the 
other selections and chairs the committee. At 
least one member of the committee must rep- 
resent a program different from the candi- 
date's major program. Members may agree to 
serve temporarily during the candidate's first 
year of residence until the candidate has had 
the opportunity to become acquainted with 
areas of research in the programs of his or her 
choice. On completion of this year of resi- 
dence, a permanent Special Committee will 
be formed, the membership of which can be 
changed with agreement of all members of 
the old and newly formed committees and the 
approval of the Dean. The members of the 
Special Committee decide on the student's 
program of study and research. They judge 
whether progress toward a degree is satisfac- 
tory and prepare term reports on the candi- 
date for submission to the Dean. The mem- 
bers of the committee serve on all the 
candidate's examining committees and they 
approve his or her thesis. 

5 1 

Registration and Course 

No student in the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences may double-register for an advanced 
general or professional degree with any other 
school or college except the Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College. 

At the beginning of each term, students are 
required to register with the Office of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences and to 
file a registration of courses form indicating 
all courses they will take. A fee of 510 is 
charged for late registration. 

At the beginning of each course in which 
the student is enrolling, the student will com- 
plete a separate course registration form for 
the instructor. All courses for which the stu- 
dent registers for credit will be entered in the 
official record. Grades of graduate students 
are reported as: Excellent ( E), Satisfactory (S), 
Unsatisfactory (U ), Incomplete ( I ), Absent 
( Abs. ), or Unofficially Withdrawn (W). A grade 
of Incomplete or Absent cannot be changed 
later than one term following the one in 
which the course was taken. 

Registration for the summer is required of 
graduate students who will be engaged in 


The Faculty of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences regards study in residence as essen- 
tial. Each candidate for an advanced general 

degree is expected to complete the residence 
requirements with reasonable continuity. A 
student must register each term from the 
time of his or her first registration in the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences until the 
student either withdraws or completes a de- 
gree (unless a leave of absence has been 
granted ). Full-time study for one-half aca- 
demic year with satisfactory accomplishment 
constitutes one residence unit. Two units of 
residence are the minimal requirement for 
the master's degree and six units are the mini- 
mum for the doctoral degree. However, the 
time necessary to obtain the degree generally 
exceeds the minimal requirements. A candi- 
date for the Ph.D. degree must spend two of 
the last four units of required residence in 
successive terms on the New York City or the 
Ithaca campus of Cornell University. No more 
than seven years may intervene between the 
time of first registration and the completion of 
all requirements for the doctoral degree. A 
student must complete all requirements for 
the master s degree in four years. 

Part-time graduate study, if it is necessi- 
tated by off-campus employment noncontri- 
butory to the major program of study, is not 
encouraged. Requests for part-time study 
must be reviewed by the Executive Commit 
tee. If permission is granted for part-time 
study, the student must be in residence at 
least half-time. 

The legislation with respect to eligibility of 
part-time students for residence units is as 


Residence Units Allowable Per Half Academic Year 


Contributory in 

clock hours 

major program 

Noncontributon '; 

per week 

on campus 

on campus 

Off Campus 

0—10 hours 

1 unit 

1 unit 

Yi unit 

1 1 — 20 hours 

1 unit 

y. unit 

V. unit 

21-30 hours 

y. unit (teaching) 

Vi unit 

V,— 1 unit ( research )* 

•Time spent assisting in research, if it is contributor) to the major program of study, shall be credited toward allowance of 
a full residence unit. 


Transfer of Residence Credit 

No residence credit will be granted for study 
outside the Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences to fulfill the requirements of the M.S. 
degree. No commitment can be made about 
granting residence credit toward the Ph.D. re- 
quirements for previous study in another 
graduate school until after the candidate has 
entered into residence at the Graduate School 
of Medical Sciences. At that time, the stu- 
dent's Special Committee may recommend 
acceptance of study outside the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences to the Executive 
Committee, which will determine the num- 
ber of residence units to be awarded. No 
credit can be transferred for study under- 
taken as an undergraduate or as a special stu- 
dent even in courses designed for graduate 

A student who has satisfactorily completed 
two or more academic years of study toward 
the degree of M.D. at the Cornell University 
Medical College, or another accredited medi- 
cal school in the United States with a curricu- 
lum equivalent to that of the Cornell Univcr 
sity Medical College, may transfer a maximum 
of two units of residence credit after passing 
an evaluation examination administered by a 
committee appointed by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Graduate School of Medical 

Summer Research 

Registration is required for the summer re- 
search term whether or not this effort will be 
credited toward residence unit accumulation. 
Students registered for summer research pay 
prorated tuition only if they are obtaining res- 
idence credit. However, no degree candidate 
is eligible for more than two residence units 
in any period of twelve consecutive months. 

Study In Absentia 

A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Phi- 
losophy may petition for permission to earn 
residence units for study away from Cornell 
University while regularly registered in the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences. A candi- 
date to whom this privilege has been granted, 
must register as a Candidate in absentia and 
may work temporarily under the immediate 
supervision of an individual designated by his 
or her Special Committee although the candi- 
date's program will continue to be directed 
by the Committee. For study in absentia, not 

more than two residence units may be earned 
toward fulfillment of the minimal residence 
requirements for the Ph.D. degree. 

Leave of Absence 

A candidate who finds it necessary to inter- 
rupt the continuity of his or her residence 
must petition the Dean for an official leave of 
absence. This written petition must specify 
the term of absence, state the reason for the 
requested leave of absence, and be approved 
by the student's Special Committee. 

A student who will not be in residence but 
will return to the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences to present and defend a thesis at .the 
final examination, having completed all re- 
quirements for a degree except for the final 
examination, must petition for a leave of 


Three examinations are required by the Fac- 
ulty of the Graduate School of Medical Sci- 
ences: ( 1 ) Final Examination for the M.S. de- 
gree, ( 2 ) Examination for Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy, and ( 3 ) Final Examina- 
tion for the Ph.D. degree. Examinations are 
administered by an Examining Committee 
consisting of a chairperson appointed by the 
Dean, the members of the candidate's Special 
Committee, and, in the case of the Admission 
to Doctoral Candidacy Examination, one ad- 
ditional member selected from the Faculty of 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences or of 
other institutions. In addition to these exami- 
nations, the candidate's major program may 
require a qualifying examination as part of its 
evaluation of the candidate after two units of 
residence have been completed. 

For the M.S. degree: The Final Examination 
may be oral or both oral and written. 

For the Ph.D. degree: The Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy Examination is both oral 
and written and certifies that the student is el- 
igible to present a thesis to the Faculty of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The ex- 
amination should be taken after course work 
is largely finished but before significant thesis 
research has begun. Accordingly, the usual 
examination time will be at the end of the 
second year of residence. The examination 
may not be taken until two units of residence 
credit have been accumulated and a mini- 
mum of two units of residence credit is re- 
quired after passing this examination before 
the final examination can be scheduled. The 
final examination for the Ph.D. degree is an 


oral defense of the candidate's thesis. It must 
be passed within four years after completion 
of the required residence units, or within 
seven years from the date of first registration, 
whichever is earlier. 

Foreign Language 

Each program of study has its own foreign 
language requirements. The student's Special 
Committee may require knowledge of foreign 
languages beyond the requirements of the 
programs listed in this catalog. 

Arrangements for a foreign language exami- 
nation will be made on application to the Of- 
fice of the Dean. As an alternative to this ex- 
amination, the candidate may demonstrate 
proficiency by having passed the reading part 
of the language qualification tests adminis- 
tered by the College Entrance Examination 


A principal requirement for both the M.S. and 
the Ph.D. degrees is the presentation of a the- 
sis constituting an imaginative contribution 
to knowledge. Ordinarily, the thesis is written 
on a research topic in the candidate's major 
field of study, under the direction of the chair- 
person of his or her Special Committee. The 
time between the thesis defense and submis- 
sion of the thesis in its final form is limited to 
60 days. The faculty requires that the Ph.D. 
thesis be published in abstract and be re- 
corded on microfilm. 

Tuition and Fees 

Tuition for a student regularly matriculated in 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences is 
SI 1,465 for the academic year 1987-88 and is 
payable in two equal parts, the first of which 
is due at initial registration. Tuition includes 
fees for matriculation, hospitalization insur- 
ance, graduation, and miscellaneous thesis 

Students in the Ph.D. M.D. program (see p. 
4 ) will be charged Medical College tuition 
( $16,300 per annum ) while they are enrolled 
in medical school. 

A student who is to receive partial resi- 
dence credit (see p. 52 ) because of employ- 
ment should apply for proration of tuition on 
forms obtainable at the Office of the Dean. 

Other Fees 

In Absentia A student registered in absen- 
tia pays a fee of $200 each term and may con- 
tinue hospitalization insurance by payment of 
the annual premium directly to the Student 
Accounting Office. If students in absentia 
take advantage of local privileges, such as the 
use of the library desk space, Student Health 
Service, and Cornell housing, the fee is $400 
per semester. The latter fee also covers hospi- 
talization insurance. 

Leave of Absence Students on leave of ab- 
sence will be required to pay an active-file fee 
of $200 for each semester, up to a maximum 
of six semesters, during which they are not 
registered with the Graduate School. This fee 
will not be subject to finance charges but 
must be paid before the student can receive 
an advanced degree. Petition for waiver of 
this fee will be considered for students who 
have not completed the required number of 
residence units. 

Candidate for Degree Only A graduate 
student who has previously fulfilled all other 
degree requirements, who has been granted a 
leave of absence, and then returns to the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences to pre- 
sent a thesis and to take the final examination 
must register as a Candidate for Degree Only 
and pay a fee of $35. 

Any individual who owes money to the 
University will not be allowed to register or 
reregister in the University, receive a tran- 
script of his or her record, have his or her ac- 
ademic credits certified, be granted a leave of 
absence, have a degree conferred and will 
not be eligible for health services and subsi- 
dized housing. 

The amount, time, and manner of payment 
of tuition, fees, or other charges may be 
changed at any time without notice. 


Part of the personally paid tuition will be re- 
funded if the student obtains official certifica- 
tion of leave of absence or withdrawal from 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences dur- 
ing the semester. Students who terminate 
their registration during a regular term in this 
manner will be charged tuition from the reg- 
istration day to the effective date of the certif- 
icate as follows, first week, 10 percent; second 
week, 20 percent; third week, 30 percent; 


fourth week, 40 percent; fifth week, 60 per- 
cent; sixth week, 80 percent; seventh week, 
100 percent. No charge will be made if the ef- 
fective date of leave or withdrawal is within 
the first six days of the term, including regis- 
tration day. 

Financial Assistance 

All applicants to the Graduate School are re- 
quested to submit a Graduate and Profes- 
sional School Financial Aid Service ( GAPSFAS ) 
form providing an estimate of financial need. 
The information will be used in two ways: 
The number of students with documentable 
need will allow the University to obtain maxi- 
mum federal funding for loans and work 
study purposes, and the specific need of an 
applicant may be used to determine that indi- 
vidual's graduate support. Please obtain the 
nec essary form, available at your college or 
university financial aid office and from the Ed- 
ucational Testing Service. File the form with 
the Educational Testing Service, Box 26 14, 
Princeton, New Jersey 0854 1, and request 
that the information be sent to Cornell-Code 

Financial assistance is available to qualified 
applicants. Individual fields may offer predoc- 
toral research fellowships, research assistant- 
ships, or teaching assistantships. These posi- 
tions may provide a stipend in addition to 
tuition. Information about these positions 
may be obtained directly from the Program 
Director at the time of application. 

Nationwide competitive predoctoral fel- 
lowships are available from the National Sci- 
ence Foundation and the National Research 
Council. Information about these fellowships 
should be requested directly from the appro- 
priate governmental agency. 

New York State residents are eligible for 
several predoctoral fellowships and the Tui- 
tion Assistance Program, which assists in tui- 
tion payments. Application forms may be ob- 
tained from the New York Higher Education 
Services Corporation, Student Financial Aid 
Section, Tower Building, Empire State Plaza. 
Albany, NY 12255. 

Several loan programs are available to grad- 
uate students. Under these programs, repay- 
ment of the principal amount of the loan to- 
gether with the interest on the loan may be 
deferred until after graduation. Complete in- 
formation regarding loan programs may be 
obtained from the Graduate School Office. 

Opportunity for part-time employment is 
often available in departmental research proj- 

ects or other activities. Applications should 
be made directly to individual departments. 

The Graduate School of Medical Sciences 
participates in the Work-Study Program of 
Cornell University which provides a signifi- 
cant salary contribution for qualified em- 
ployed students. 

Scholarships and 

Full fellowships are provided for graduate stu- 
dents by both the Medical College and Sloan- 
Kettering Divisions of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. Recipients of this award be- 
come Ph.D. Fellows and will receive a full tui- 
tion scholarship and a stipend covering living 

A number of tuition scholarships are avail- 
able for students in the Medical College Divi- 
sion who are not covered by one of the above 
fellowships. This scholarship fund is adminis- 
tered by the Office of the Dean of the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences. 

In addition, the following named funds pro- 
vide support for selected students: 

The Vincent Astor Scholarship Fund. 

Funds for tuition assistance are also derived 
from the income from a generous gift by the 
Vincent Astor Foundation to the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences and to the Medical 
College. Allocation of these funds for graduate 
student tuition assistance is made at the dis- 
cretion of the Dean of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. 

The Harry E. Gould, Sr., Medical and 
Graduate Student Scholarship. This fund 
was established by Mr. Gould's son, Harry E. 
Gould, Jr., in memory of his father, a promi- 
nent business and civic leader in the City of 
New York, who had a long-standing interest in 
medicine. The income from this endowment 
provides financial assistance for students of 
the Medical College and Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. 

The Mildred and Emil Holland Scholar- 
ship. Income from a gift by the Emil and 
Mildred Holland Philanthropic Fund of the 
Jewish Communal Fund is used to provide tu- 
ition support for an M.D. Ph.D. student. 

The W. A. Keck Foundation Medical Sci- 
entist Fellowship. This award is derived 
from a generous endowment awarded to Cor- 
nell University Medical College and provides 
support for an M.D -Ph.D. student. 


The Francis L. Loeb Medical Scientist Fel- 
lowships. These fellowships have been en- 
dowed by a gift from Francis L. Loeb and pro- 
vide support for two M.D.-Ph.D. students at 
the Cornell University Medical College. 

The Frank R. and Blanche A. Mowrer Me- 
morial Fund. Financial assistance is available 
from the income of this fund to one student 
each year enrolled in the Ph.D.-M.D. or M.D.- 
Ph.D. program. 

The Papanicolaou Medical Scientist Fel- 
lowship is funded by income from a bequest 
from Mary G. Papanicolaou in memory of her 
husband, Dr. George N. Papanicolaou, and by 
a gift from an anonymous donor to the Cor- 
nell University Medical College. The funds 
provide support for an M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

The Abby Rockefeller Mauze Medical Sci- 
entist Fellowship was established by a gift 
from the Abby Rockefeller Mauze Trust. The 
income provides fellowship support for an 
M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

The Surdna Foundation Medical Scientist 
Fellowship was made possible by a generous 
grant to the Medical College by the Surdna 
Foundation. The income from this endow- 
ment provides fellowship support for an M.D.- 
Ph.D. student. 

Awards and Prizes 

The Julian R. Rachele Prize. The income of 
a fund established by Dr. Julian R. Rachele, 
former Dean of the Cornell University Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences, provides for 
an annual prize to be awarded to a candidate 
for the Ph.D. degree for a research paper of 
which the candidate is the sole or the senior 

The prize was shared in 198" 7 by Robert 
Hariri and David Russell. 

The Vincent duVigneaud Prizes for the 

presentation of outstanding papers by stu- 
dents of the Cornell University Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences at the Annual Vin- 
cent duVigneaud Memorial Research 

Recipients of these awards in 1987 were 
Corinne Abate, Rafael Fcrnandez-Almonacid, 
and Beatrice Knudsen. 

The Frank Lappin Horsfall Jr. Award is en- 
dowed by funds provided in memory of Dr. 
Horsfall by his many friends and family. It is 
continued evidence of his concern for stu- 

dents manifest during his directorship of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division. 

The award is made annually to a student of 
the Sloan-Kettering Division, who in the opin- 
ion of the Committee of the Faculty of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division, has been most dis- 
tinguished, especially in the Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy Examination. 

Recipient of the award in 1987 was Clifford 

The Thesis Prizes are awarded to students 
of the Medical College Division who have pre- 
sented an outstanding thesis during the aca- 
demic year. 

Recipients of these prizes in 1986—87 were 
Lynn Doucette and Robert Hariri. 

Student Health Services 

The student Health Plan of Cornell University 
Medical College provides hospitalization and 
major medical insurance for all registered 
graduate students. In addition, the Plan pro- 
vides for ambulatory care at the Personnel 
Health Service of The New York Hospital- 
Cornell Medical Center. Physicians at the 
Health Service will refer students who re- 
quire specialized care to clinics of the Hospi- 
tal and to attending physicians of the staff. 

The cost of medical services provided by 
the Plan are included in the tuition and fee 
structure announced by the Graduate School 
of Medical Sciences each academic year. Stu- 
dents will be issued Plan membership cards 
and will receive courtesy privileges at The 
New York Hospital Pharmacy. 

Entering students are requested to have a 
physical examination, chest X-ray and labora- 
tory tests performed by their personal physi- 
cians prior to matriculation. The hours of the 
Personnel Health Service and a complete 
statement of Plan benefits will be provided to 
each graduate student. 

It is recommended that students purchase 
insurance coverage for eligible dependents 
who do not have other insurance available to 
them. Insured dependents are not eligible for 
care at the Personnel Health Service but they 
will be referred to appropriate members of 
the Hospital staff for medical treatment. 

A student studying in absentia may con- 
tinue hospitalization insurance by payment of 
the annual fees directly to the Student Ac 
counting Office. 

A student on leave of absence is not eligible 
to receive student health benefits. 


Residence Halls 

F. W. Olin Hall, a student residence, is at 445 
East Sixty-ninth Street directly across from 
the Medical College entrance on York Avenue. 
Olin Hall contains a gymnasium, lounges, and 
245 residence rooms. Each residence room is 
a single bedroom-study but since two rooms 
share a connecting bath, they may be used as 
a suite for two students. The rooms are com- 
pletely furnished. The student housing fee is 
$2 13 per month. 

Livingston Ferrand Apartments, also lo- 
cated on East Sixty-ninth Street, just beyond 
Olin Hall, have furnished apartments of 1 '/>, 2, 
3, and 4 rooms. Cooking facilities are pro- 
vided in these apartments. Housing fees range 
from $272— $501 per month (utilities not in- 
cluded ). These apartments are available to 
married and upper-class students. 

Jacob S. I as don House, an apartment resi- 
dence, is located at 420 East Seventieth 
Street. This building contains studio, one- 
bedroom, and two-bedroom apartments and 
two squash courts. Apartments are fully fur- 
nished and include kitchens. Housing fees 
range from $460— $1,046 per month includ- 
ing utilities. Single, first-year students cannot 
be accommodated in this building. 

The fees listed above may be changed at any 
time without previous notice. 

Special Programs 

Application to the Medical 
Scientist Training Program 

Successful applicants must demonstrate a 
strong undergraduate science preparation, 
and an early commitment to a career combin- 
ing both clinical and laboratory research. 
They must simultaneously satisfy the separate 
requirements for admission to Cornell Uni- 
versity Medical College and to the Divisions 
of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

Applications must show whether admission 
is sought to the M.D.-Ph.D. program of the 
Medical College Division, the Sloan-Kettering 
Division, or both (see p. 3 for a description of 
the programs). Only one set of documents is 
required for applications to either or both 
programs. All documents must be forwarded 
to the Office of Admissions, Cornell Univer- 

sity Medical College, 445 East 69 th Street, 
New York, NY 10021. Telephone (212) 472- 

The following items are required, by No- 
vember 30, for an application to be consid- 
ered complete: 

1. AMCAS application. (The personal data 
and academic record presented in this ap- 
plication are suitable for evaluation by 
both the medical and graduate schools. ) 

2. Supplemental Information Form. This 
form will be supplied when further infor- 
mation is requested. 

3. Test Scores. MCAT scores are required; 
GRE scores are optional. If the GRE is 
taken, please instruct the Educational Test- 
ing Service to forward your scores. 

4. Personal statement. A summary of the ap- 
plicant's background, interests, and rea- 
sons for pursuing the combined program. 

5. Letters of Recommendation. 

a. Evaluation by the pre-medical advisory 
committee or two letters from members of 
the undergraduate science faculty address- 
ing themselves to the applicant's suitabil- 
ity for a career in medicine. 

b. Evaluations by at least two faculty mem- 
bers addressing themselves to the appli- 
cant's research potential. 

6. Application Fee. After the AMCAS applica- 
tion is received, a check for $45 is re- 
quested to cover the application process- 
ing fee. 

After screening, selected applicants to the 
program will be invited to visit the Cornell 
Medical Center and meet with members of 
the faculty of the medical and graduate pro- 
grams. These interview visits will be coordi- 
nated by the Medical College Admissions 

Application to the Ph.D.- 
M.D. Program 

Applications to this program (see p. 4 for de- 
scription) are ordinarily made after the com- 
pletion of the first year of study in the Gradu- 
ate School of Medical Sciences, although more 
advanced students may be considered. The 
deadline for application is January 1. 

To apply, the student must submit to the Of- 
fice of the Dean of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences: 

1 . A completed application for admission 
with advanced standing to Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College (obtainable from the 


Medical College Admissions Office). 

2. A plan of graduate study incorporating all 
required course work of the first two years 
of the Medical College curriculum and 
endorsed by the student s Special 

3. Evidence of successful completion of at 
least two major medical school basic sci- 
ence courses ( anatomical sciences, bio- 
chemistry, microbiology, pathology; phar- 
macology; physiology ). 

4. Two letters of evaluation from faculty of 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

The Office of the Dean of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences will review the 
student's credentials and make a recommen- 
dation to the Committee on Admissions of 
Cornell University Medical College. Only ap- 
plicants who are found to be acceptable by 
this committee, after review of the applica- 
tion and personal interviews, can enter the 
Ph.D.-M.D. Program. Final decision will be 
made before June 1. 

Students in this program must meet the fol- 
lowing requirements before admission to the 
third-year clinical curriculum of the Medical 

1 . Complete all required graduate courses 
and the remainder of the first two years of 
the medical school curriculum. 

2. Pass the Admission to Doctoral Candidacy 
Examination, required by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences. 

3. Complete the dissertation research; pre- 
sent and successfully defend an original 
thesis at the final examination for the 
Ph.D. degree. 

After satisfactory fulfillment of the required 
clinical rotations of the Cornell third-year 
medical school curriculum and of the re- 
quired selectives of the fourth-year curricu- 
lum these students may receive credit for 
their graduate studies to satisfy the elective 
requirements of the fourth-year medical 
school curriculum and will then be recom- 
mended for award of the M.D. degree by Cor- 
nell University. 

While registered as a graduate student in 
the Ph.D.-M.D. Program, the student is sub- 
ject to the tuition schedule of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences. Upon completion 
of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree, the 
student is registered in the Medical College 
and is subject to its tuition schedule. 


Programs of Study 

Graduate Seminar 

This school-wide seminar is offered weekly 
each year. Second-year students present brief 
reports on their research experiences in their 
laboratory rotations. First-year students may 
report on laboratory rotations, review a se- 
lected area of research, or critically review a 
research paper. The discussion is carried out 
principally by graduate students under the 
guidance of their major ( temporary or perma- 
nent ) sponsors. From time to time outstand- 
ing authorities are invited as guest speakers. 
In addition, students in their third and later 
years of graduate study address the seminars 
on the progress being made on their thesis 


Graduate Program Chairman 

A. Meister, Department of Biochemistry 
Room E- 106, Medical College, (212) 472-62 12 

Graduate Program Director 

D. Wellner, Department of Biochemistry. 
Room E-2 19, Medical College, (212) 472 -6 197 

Graduate instruction is offered leading to the 
Ph.D. degree. Within the framework of de- 
gree requirements and in consultation with 
the student, the course of study is planned to 
fit the need of the individual. Although formal 
course work is required, emphasis is placed 
on research. Research opportunities exist in 
various areas of biochemistry including enzy- 
mology structure and function of proteins 
and nucleic acids, molecular biology, physical 
biochemistry, and the intermediary metabo- 
lism of amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic 
acids, and lipids. Entering graduate students 
usually work for short periods in several of 
the laboratories of the faculty members of the 
Field before beginning their thesis research. 
Students are encouraged to choose challeng- 
ing fundamental research problems that are 
on the frontiers of biochemistry. 

The laboratories of the faculty members 
are equipped with virtually all of the instru- 
ments and facilities required for modern bio- 
chemical research; thus, graduate students 
are instructed in such methodology as chro- 

matography, countercurrent distribution, ra- 
dioactive and stable isotope techniques, spec- 
trophotometry, electrophoresis, and 
analytical ultracentrifugation. 

Students who undertake graduate study in 
biochemistry must have a sufficiently com- 
prehensive background in chemistry to pur- 
sue the proposed course of study and must 
present evidence of knowledge of biology, 
general experimental physics, mathematics 
(including differential and integral calculus). 
Students may remedy deficiencies in these 
areas during the first year of graduate study. 
The Graduate Record Examination (the apti- 
tude test and the advanced test in chemistry) 
is ordinarily required. 

The student is required to demonstrate 
proficiency in one modern foreign language 
acceptable to the student's Special Commit- 
tee. Proficiency in a computer programming 
language, as demonstrated by executing a 
meaningful program, may substitute for profi- 
ciency in a foreign language. 


Graduate Biochemistry. Offered jointly 
by the faculties of the Medical College and 
Sloan-Kettering Divisions. This course is de- 
signed to provide the student with a knowl- 
edge of the fundamentals of biochemistry and 
an appreciation of the molecular basis of bio- 
logical phenomena. Graduate students in the 
Field of Biochemistry are required to pass 
this course (or its equivalent). First and sec- 
ond quarters annually. Dr. Haschemeyer. 

Advanced Biochemistry. This course con- 
sists of one or more lecture series (mini- 
courses ) covering selected areas of current 
interest at an advanced level. The topics 
change from year to year and may be repeated 
after 2 or 3 years. The subjects offered in- 
clude: 1 ) nucleic acids and protein synthesis; 
2 ) intermediate metabolism and its regula- 
tion; 3) kinetics and enzyme mechanisms; 4) 
protein and peptide microchemistry; 5) mem- 
brane structure and function; 6) hormones; 7) 
computer programming for the biochemist; 
8) physical methods in the study of macromo- 
lecular and cellular structure; 9 ) design of in- 
hibitors of enzymes and transport systems. 
Prerequisite: Graduate Biochemistry. Courses 
offered in 1987-88: 


Biosynthesis, Processing, and In- 
tracellular Transport of Proteins. 

Fourth quarter. Dr. Tate. 

Membrane Biochemistry. Fourth 
quarter. Dr. Hajjar. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Introduction to Research. Laboratory ro- 
tations in experimental biochemistry dealing 
with the isolation, synthesis, and analysis of 
substances of biochemical importance (en- 
zymes, co-enzymes, various metabolites and 
intermediates ), and study of their properties 
by various chemical and physical techniques. 
The student obtains this varied research ex- 
perience by spending approximately two 
months in the laboratory of each of four fac- 
ulty members of his or her choice. For 
incoming graduate students majoring in 

Biochemistry Seminars. A seminar series 
in which students, faculty, and invited scien- 
tists from this and other institutions report on 
progress in their laboratories. 

Cell Biology and Genetics 

Graduate Program 

June L. Biedler, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Walker Laboratory, Room 2127, 145 Boston 
Post Road, Rye, NY 10580, (9 14 ) 698- 1100, 
ext. 2 10 

Donald A. Fischman, Department of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy, Room A- 112, Cornell Uni- 
versity Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, 
New York, NY 1002 1,(212) 472-6400 

Graduate Program 

Paula Traktman, Department of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy, Room A-303, Cornell University 
Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New 
York, NY 1002 1,(212) 472-25 16 

David B. Donner, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Howard Laboratory, Room 909, 1275 York Av- 
enue, New York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-7871 

The Program in Cell Biology and Genetics of- 
fers advanced study leading to the Ph.D. de- 
gree. The program is intended to prepare stu- 

dents for a career in basic research and 
teaching in cell, developmental and molecular 
biology, genetics, endocrinology, or related 
health sciences. 

Course Requirements: In the first two years 
students are expected to complete a core cur- 
riculum of Graduate Biochemistry, Cell Biol- 
ogy, Molecular Genetics and Graduate Semi- 
nar. To satisfy the requirements for the Ph.D., 
the students select eight quarters of elective 
courses with emphasis in either Cell Biology 
or Genetics. Admission to elective courses in 
the area of Genetics is predicated upon dem- 
onstrated competency in basic genetics. 

Laboratory Rotations: Students rotate 
through three laboratories during the first 
year. Such rotations familiarize students with 
ongoing research in the Program and provide 
a mechanism for selection of the thesis 

Admission to Doctoral Candidacy: The pro- 
gram administers the Admission to Doctoral 
Candidacy Examination before the end of the 
second year of residence. The specific format 
of the examination, which is composed of 
written and oral sections, is determined by 
the examining committee. 


Advanced Cell Biology. Advanced course 
covering topics in membrane biology, cyto- 
skeleton and cell motility, muscle cell biology, 
and aspects of nuclear structure and chromo- 
some organization. The course includes lec- 
tures and group discussions of assigned re- 
search papers. Prerequisite: previous 
background in basic cell biology or course di- 
rector's approval. Offered in alternate years. 
Second and third quarters in 1987—88. Dr. 
Rodriguez-Boulan and staff. 

Molecular Genetics. The class focuses on 
key topics of molecular biology concerning 
gene structure and organization in prokary- 
otes and eukaryotes, chromosome structure, 
protein synthesis and translational and tran- 
scriptional control. The use of genetic, bio- 
chemical and molecular biological methods 
to study the questions experimentally is cov- 
ered in depth. Some topics of current interest 
such as immune diversity, oncogenes and 
homeotic genes are also covered. The course 
includes an equal number of lectures and in- 
depth small-group discussions of representa- 
tive research papers from the current litera- 


turc. Prerequisite: background in biological 
sciences. Limited to 30 students. Offered 
every year with alternating faculties. Offered 
during the first and second quarters of 1987— 
88 by Drs. Jack, Lustig and Osley (Sloan-Ket- 
tering Division ); offered first and second quar 
ters of 1988-89 by Drs. Chao, Neff and 

Genetics. A series of electives on advanced 
topics in human genetics will be offered. Top- 
ics may include cytogenetics, population ge- 
netics, genetic epidemiology and somatic cell 
genetics. Drs. Chaganti, German, Jacobs, Mor- 
ton, Siniscalco and staff. A basic knowledge of 
genetics will be presumed; scheduling to be 

Graduate Student Seminar. This course is 
designed to improve graduate students' skills 
in public presentation. On a rotating basis, 
students prepare a brief written abstract and 
an oral presentation on a topic of their choice. 
The presentation is informally critiqued by 
the faculty. First through fourth quarters, an- 
nually Dr. Chao and staff. 

Developmental Biology. Principles of de- 
scriptive, experimental, and molecular devel- 
opmental biology are presented, using several 
animal systems as examples. Early develop- 
ment of the whole organism, and of cells, tis- 
sues, and organs are considered. Prerequi- 
sites: consent of the faculty Limited to 15 
students. Offered in alternate years; third and 
fourth quarters in 1988-89. Drs. Bachvarova 
and Bader. 

Practicum in Electron Microscopy. A 

workshop in practical aspects of electron mi- 
croscopy Following a weekly one-hour lec- 
ture, students conduct specific protocols in- 
volved in electron microscopy Topics 
covered include: tissue fixation, embedding 
and thin sectioning; transmission and scan- 
ning electron microscopy; shadow-casting of 
proteins and nucleic acids; immunocyto- 
chemistry; photography All participants are 
required to complete an independent project. 
Prerequisite: Consent of instructors. Require- 
ments for passing grade: Completion of an in- 
dependent project paper. Limited to 10 stu- 
dents. Offered in 1987-88 during third and 
fourth quarters. Mr. Dennis, Dr. Fischman and 

Cell Biology and Microscopic Anatomy. 

Offered by the staff of the Program in Cell Bi- 
ology and Genetics in conjunction with the 

Faculty of the Cornell LJniversity Medical Col- 
lege. This course follows a cellular and differ- 
entiative approach aimed at understanding 
the structure-function correlates that charac- 
terize the different tissues and organs. Se- 
lected topics are presented in the lectures 
and laboratory exercises to indicate a pattern 
of study and depth of analysis that the student 
can be expected to apply to the study of cells 
and tissues. A microscope slide collection, 
presenting tissues and organs in a variety of 
physiological and developmental states, as 
well as correlative electron micrographs, are 
provided for individual study in the labora- 
tory. Second and third quarters, annually. Qrs. 
Bader and Wall. 

Gross Anatomy. Regional anatomy is stud- 
ied principally through dissection of the hu- 
man body. Supplementing this technique are 
prosections by instructors, tutorial group dis- 
cussions, and radiographic and endoscopic 
demonstrations. Enrollment is limited and 
students should consult the staff early in or- 
der to determine the availability of places. 
First and second quarters, annually, Drs. Haga- 
men and Weber, and the staff. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Endocrine Research in Progress Semi- 
nars. Reports of ongoing research by faculty 
of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 
Cornell University Medical College and The 
Rockefeller University are given weekly 
throughout the year. 


Graduate Program Chairman 

Osias Stutman, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Ket- 
tering Laboratory Room 1118, 1275 York Ave- 
nue, New York, NY 1002 1,(212) 794-7475 

Graduate Program Director 

Robert W. Knowles, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Schwartz Laboratory, Room 1001, 1275 York 
Avenue, New York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-7089 

The program of study is developed for each 
student individually on the basis of the stu- 
dent's interest and prior experience. The Im- 
munology Program has no fixed course re- 
quirements, but students generally take a 
core of formal courses offered by the gradu- 
ate school in immunology, biochemistry, mo- 
lecular biology, cell biology and genetics in 


order to complement their previous back- 
ground and fulfill their own academic objec- 
tives. Participation in a graduate student sem- 
inar course is expected of all students to 
provide experience in oral presentation. Ad- 
mission to Doctoral Candidacy at the end of 
the second year requires both written and 
oral examinations of the candidate's general 
understanding of immunology and related 
subjects which are relevant to the proposed 
research. However, the main focus of the 
graduate program in immunology is on labo- 
ratory research. Each student is required to 
undertake at least two minor research proj- 
ects with different faculty members prior to 
developing a major research proposal for the 
doctoral thesis. This allows for laboratory ex- 
perience to begin during the first year of the 
student's program. By the third year the doc- 
toral candidate begins a full-time thesis proj- 
ect which typically takes two to three years. 
During this time the student will not take for- 
mal courses but will continue to participate 
in the other educational programs offered by 
the Institute. These include a wide variety of 
research seminars which are offered through- 
out the year with speakers from outside the 
Institute. In addition, the Immunology Pro- 
gram offers a series of colloquia on current 
topics in immunology with presentations and 
discussions led by Immunology faculty 

Applicants should have a strong undergrad- 
uate background in the biological sciences, 
including biochemistry, molecular genetics, 
and microbiology and are also expected to 
have some undergraduate laboratory research 
experience. The application requires a per- 
sonal statement describing the student's back- 
ground and specific interest in the Immunol- 
ogy Program. An official transcript of the 
student's undergraduate record is also neces- 
sary with at least two letters from faculty 
members who can evaluate the academic po- 
tential of the student in a Ph.D. program in 
Immunology. Applicants must also submit the 
results of the Graduate Record Exam includ- 
ing the advanced test in Biology or Chemistry. 


Introduction to Immunology This course 
provides a broad introduction to the field of 
Immunology and the specific research inter 
ests of the faculty. It is designed for first-year 
graduate students and others with no formal 
training in Immunology. It includes an over- 
view of the immune system, but also covers 
selected topics in detail. 

These topics include techniques in immu- 
nology, B lymphocytes, immunoglobulins and 
monoclonal antibodies, T lymphocytes and T 
cell clones, immunogenetics of lymphocyte 
differentiation antigens, cell mediated immu- 
nity, T cell antigen receptors, natural cytotox- 
icity, macrophage and other accessory cells, 
lymphokines, the major histocompatibility 
complex genes and transplantation, HLA and 
disease associations, and tumor immunology. 
Quarters I and II, annually. Dr. Knowles and 
the Immunology Program Faculty. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Colloquia in Immunology Informal ses- 
sions are held monthly between students and 
senior faculty members to acquaint students 
with the major research programs headed by 
each of the faculty members of the Immunol- 
ogy Program. 

Molecular Biology 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Kenneth I. Berns, Department of Microbiol- 
ogy, Room B-308, Cornell University Medical 
College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 

Graduate Program Director 

Kenneth J. Marians, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 820A, 1275 York 
Avenue, New York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-5890 

Admission A good background in genetics, 
molecular biology, chemistry, or biochemistry 
is required of students. Graduate Record Ex- 
amination scores in both the aptitude test and 
the advanced test in biology or chemistry are 
also required. 

Course Requirements Students must com- 
plete a core sequence of Graduate Biochemis- 
try, Molecular Genetics, and Eucaryotic Gene 
Structure and Function during their first two 
years and Graduate Research Seminar 
throughout their enrollment. To complete the 
course requirements, eight additional 
quarter-equivalents of coursework must be 
taken, chosen from a list of courses approved 
by the Curriculum Committee. This list cur- 
rently includes: Nucleic Acids Enzymology 
Cell Biology, Developmental Biology, Molecu- 
lar Virology, Molecular Parasitology, Molecular 
Biology of Growth Control and Neoplastic 
Transformation, Electron Microscopy, and 


Laboratory Rotations Students are required 
to rotate through a minimum of two laborato- 
ries. Laboratory rotations begin immediately 
after an intensive series of lectures by the fac- 
ulty- designed to familiarize students with the 
research underway in their laboratories. Rota- 
tion periods are: October-January. Febru- 
ary— May, June— August. It is expected that 
students will have chosen their thesis mentor 
by the start of their second year in the 

Admission to Doctoral Candidacy This ex- 
amination will be given once a year in June 
and consist of two parts, a uniform written 
exam and an oral defense of a written re- 
search proposal. The proposal cannot be in 
the same field as the student's thesis research. 
It is expected that most students will take this 
exam at the end of their second year 

Special Committee A student s Special 
Committee will be chosen by the student's 
mentor in consultation with Curriculum 
Committee when the student elects a labora 
tory for thesis research. 

Curriculum Committee This committee, 
chaired by the Program Director and consist 
ing of 8— 10 members of the faculty, oversees 
all educational aspects of the program The 
committee is responsible for assembling the 
curriculum, setting course requirements, ad- 
judicating student applications for exemption 
from course requirements, and the composi- 
tion and administration of the Admission-to- 
Candidacy Examination. 


Eukaryotic Gene Structure and Function: 

A semester-long course presenting the funda- 
mentals of eukaryote gene structure, expres- 
sion and regulation. Topics discussed include: 
DNA sequence organization, chromatin struc 
ture, viral and cellular RNA transcription, 
translation and its regulation, control of gene 
expression in model systems and molecular 
aspects of carcinogenesis. Third and fourth 
quarters, annually. Drs. Sen, Sheffery, and staff. 

Nucleic Acids Enzymology: A formal 
course presenting the enzymological mecha- 
nisms and control of prokaryotic and eukary- 
otic transcription and DNA replication. En- 
zymes which alter DNA structure and shape 
are reviewed and topics in DNA repair and re- 
combination are also covered. Graduate Bio- 
chemistry is a prerequisite. First and second 
quarters, 1987—88. Alternate years. Drs. Mari- 
ans, Hurwitz, and Holloman. 

Molecular Virology: A formal course in 
which major emphasis is placed on the basic 
mechanisms in the biology of all animal vi- 
ruses, including RNA and DNA tumor viruses. 
The topics considered include virus structure 
and composition, assay of viruses and viral- 
specific products, transcription and replica- 
tion of viral nucleic acids, translation of virus- 
specific proteins, assembly of viral particles, 
structural and functional alterations in viral- 
infected cells including transformation, 
pathogenesis of viral diseases, and viral genet- 
ics. Third and fourth quarters, alternate years 
( next offered in Spring, 1989 ). Drs. Krug and 

Molecular Genetics: This course is de- 
signed to familiarize graduate students with 
practical problems in current research and to 
encourage critical reading of the scientific lit- 
erature. Students receive reading assignments 
and are expected to present short summaries 
of important experiments at each class meet- 
ing. Topics covered include protein structure, 
protein-nucleic acid interactions, models for 
transcription factors, genetic complementa- 
tion, and mapping and suppressor analysis in 
bacteria and yeast. First and second quarters, 
annually. Drs. Traktman, Chao, and Neff. 

Molecular Biology of Growth Control 
and Neoplastic Transformation: This 
course focuses on current efforts to under- 
stand the neoplastic cell phenotype from a 
molecular point of view. The effects of RNA 
and DNA tumor viruses on host cells are dis- 
cussed, in particular the transformation and/ 
or differentiation blocks of defined cell lin- 
eages by certain agents. The nature and enzy- 
matic specificities of viral gene products re- 
sponsible for transformation are compared 
with related products of normal cellular 
genes. The potential interaction of such prod- 
ucts with regulatory systems controlling cell 
shape, adhesiveness, motility and mitosis are 
described, as well as the possible involvement 
of the same systems in nonviral neoplasias. A 
section of the course is devoted to the molec- 
ular biology and biochemistry of cell surface 
growth factor- and polypeptide hormone- 
receptors and mechanisms of signal transmis- 
sion across biological membranes. At least 
part of the course consists of student presen- 
tations on relevant subjects. Third and fourth 
quarters, 1987-88. Alternate years. Drs. Hay- 
ward, Rosen, Besmer and staff. 

Molecular Parasitology: This course fo- 
cuses on the recent advances in the molecu- 
lar and biochemical analysis of parasite physi- 
ology and their interactions with vertebrate 
hosts. Lectures are offered once a week, fol- 


lowed by a discussion group. Topics include 
structures and functions of surface molecules, 
mechanism of antigen variations and immune 
evasion, interaction of parasites with targeted 
cells as well as general aspects of gene organi- 
zation and expression in various parasites. 
Third and fourth quarters, 1987-88. Alter- 
nate years. Dr. Ravetch. 

Graduate Research Seminar: This 
course represents an opportunity for all the 
faculty and students of the program to hear 
the upper-class students describe their re- 
search in formal seminar presentations. Quar- 
ters I— IV, annually. Drs. Lacy and Rosen. 

Neurobiology and Behavior 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Tong H. Joh, Department of Neurology, 
Cornell University Medical College, Kips Bay 
Building, Room KB- 104, 411 E. 69th Street, 
New York, NY 1002 1,(212) 472-4699 

Graduate Program Director 

Gary E. Gibson, Department of Neurology, 
Cornell University Medical College, Burke Re- 
habilitation Center, 785 Mamaroneck Avenue, 
White Plains, NY 10605, (914) 948-0050, ext. 

The Program in Neurobiology and Behavior 
provides training in the study of the nervous 
system. It includes the disciplines of neuro- 
anatomy, neuroembryology, neurophysiology, 
neuropharmacology; neurochemistry, neu- 
roendocrinology molecular biology; and neu- 
ropsychology and perception. The program 
emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach to 
the study of the nervous system, based on the 
belief that future advances in our understand- 
ing of the nervous system will be derived 
from the thinking and research techniques 
employed by more than one discipline. 
Toward this end, the program of entering stu- 
dents is planned in consultation with several 
staff members, and the students are expected 
to spend some period of time working closely 
with members of the faculty whose interests 
are related to theirs. In addition, there are 
regularly scheduled seminars during which 
various aspects of work in process are pre- 
sented and discussed. By these means, the 
students are afforded the broadest possible 
view of the program during their total train- 
ing experience. 

The student majoring in Neurobiology and 
Behavior will be required to satisfy the re- 
quirements of the courses in neuroscience, 
statistics, and biomathematics, and two in the 
following areas: microscopic anatomy, physi- 
ology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 7 . The 
student must also have two minors, at least 
one of which is outside the program. In addi- 
tion, participation in the seminar program 
and advanced course offerings is expected. 
While there are no language requirements, it 
is suggested that the student achieve mastery 
of a modern foreign language or a computer 
programming language. The student choosing 
Neurobiology and Behavior as a minor is re- 
quired to participate in the neuroscience 
course and the seminar program as well as 
obtain any additional experience that the mi- 
nor sponsor may suggest. 

Applicants to the program are expected to 
have had adequate undergraduate training in 
biology, organic chemistry, physics, and math- 
ematics. Graduate Record Examination 
scores are to be submitted with the applica- 
tion. An interview with the applicant is con- 
sidered highly desirable. 


Neuroscience This is the basic undergradu- 
ate medical school course and is required of 
all major and minor candidates in the pro- 
gram, it is a broadly based course and intro- 
duces the student to neuroanatomy, neuro- 
physiology, and pertinent neurology. Fourth 
quarter annually. Drs. Brooks and Grafstein. 

Neuroscience Seminar Current topics of 
neurosciences, not included or minimally 
covered in the Neuroscience course, are ex- 
amined in detail. The course is required of all 
major candidates in the program. Fourth 
quarter annually. Drs. Brooks and Grafstein. 

Neuropharmacology ( see Program in 
Pharmacology ). 

Behavioral Neuroscience The aim of this 
course is to examine the neural substrates of 
a variety of behavioral and mental processes, 
including attention, perception, learning and 
memory, emotion, and language. Anatomical, 
physiological, pharmacological, biochemical, 
and molecular mechanisms of normal and 
pathological behaviors will be covered. The 
course will be divided into 4 lectures on 
basic mechanisms and 4 seminars exploring 
methodological and theoretical issues in con- 
temporary behavioral neuroscience. First 
quarter, 1987-88. Drs. LeDoux and Mann. 


Neurochemistry This course will concen- 
trate on the dynamics of neurotransmitter- 
amino acid, calcium and energy metabolism 
of the brain. The emphasis will range from in 
vivo studies in man and animal that relate di- 
rectly with behavior to purely chemical ap- 
proaches. First quarter 1987—88. Dr. Gibson. 

Molecular Neurobiology The aim of this 
course is to introduce current topics of rap- 
idly developing molecular biology research in 
neurosciences. Topics include basic concepts 
and techniques, structures of genes encoding 
neuron specific proteins and enzymes, and 
gene expression in neuronal cells. Second 
quarter, 1987-88. Dr. Joh. 


Graduate Program 

Joseph R. Bertino, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Schwartz Laboratory, Room 1001 C, 1275 York 
Avenue, New York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-8230 

Walter W. Y. Chan, Department of Pharmacol- 
ogy, Cornell University Medical College, 
Room E-400, 1300 York Avenue, New York, 
NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 472-6029 

Graduate Program 

Michiko Okamoto, Department of Pharmacol- 
ogy, Cornell University Medical College, 
Room E 4 11, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 

Francis M. Sirotnak, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 316, 1275 York 
Avenue, New York, NY 1002 1, ( 2 12 ) 794-7952 

The Graduate Program in Pharmacology is 
jointly sponsored by faculties of the Medical 
College Division and Sloan-Kettering Divi- 
sion. This coordinated faculty provides the 
student with a broad spectrum of challenging 
research opportunities in modern pharmacol- 
ogy and a unified curriculum. Students admit- 
ted to this program will receive tuition schol- 
arships and stipends. 

Admission A baccalaureate degree with a 
strong background in the natural sciences 
and/or health sciences is required for admis- 
sion. Graduate Record Examinations in both 

the aptitude test (verbal and quantitative) and 
the advanced test in Biology or Chemistry are 
also required for Ph.D. applicants. For appli- 
cations to the M.D.-Ph.D. program, the results 
of the Medical College Admission Test are ac- 
cepted in lieu of the Graduate Record 

Course Requirements In the first two years 
students are expected to complete a core cur- 
riculum that may include: Graduate Biochem- 
istry, Cell Biology, Physiology, Neuroscience, 
Graduate Pharmacology, Molecular Pharma- 
cology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, and 
Graduate Seminar. 

Minor Requirements and Laboratory 
Rotations Students are required to rotate 
through two or three laboratories. Until 
the student selects a major sponsor, the Cur- 
riculum Committee will supervise the stu- 
dent's graduate program. The minor require- 
ments must be completed before the student 
can take the Admission to Candidacy 

Admission to Doctoral Candidacy The Ad- 
mission to Candidacy Examination consists of 
two parts, a uniform written exam and an 
oral defense of a written research proposal. It 
is expected that most students will take this 
exam by the end of their second year. 

Special Committee A student's Special 
Committee will be chosen by the student and 
major sponsor in consultation with the Cur- 
riculum Committee after the student chooses 
a major sponsor for thesis research. 


General Pharmacology This basic pharma- 
cology course consists of lectures, demon- 
strations, and small group conferences. The 
purpose of these exercises is to teach the 
principles of pharmacology to second-year 
medical students and to graduate students. 
Detailed consideration is given to the parame- 
ters of drug action to provide the student with 
the fundamental concepts essential for the 
evaluation of any drug. Consequently, the sci- 
entific basis of pharmacology is emphasized. 
Prototype drugs, essentially considered sys- 
temically serve to illustrate several mecha- 
nisms and parameters of drug action. Thera- 
peutic applications are considered insofar as 
they illustrate principles of pharmacology or 
drug hazards. Second and third quarters, an- 
nually. Dr. Chan and staff. 


Molecular Pharmacology Fundamental 
principles and mechanisms governing the ef- 
fects of chemicals on living systems are exam- 
ined from the viewpoint of drug-cell interac- 
tions. Several theoretical concepts are 
introduced including drug selectivity, dose- 
response relationships, and fundamental 
mechanisms of drug actions. Also discussed 
are factors that govern the fate and time 
course of drugs in organisms including: drug 
absorption, distribution, biotransformation, 
pharmacokinetics. Examples of receptor isola- 
tion, drug-receptor interactions, and effector 
coupling are also examined. Not offered 

Neuropharmacology This course presents 
the neuropharmacology of selected drugs and 
chemical substances that affect the central 
nervous system. Emphasis is placed on molec- 
ular mechanisms of drug actions with regard 
to the biochemistry and physiology of ner- 
vous tissue. These considerations include 
mechanisms of neurotransmitter actions, in- 
cluding drug actions that modify neurotrans- 
mitter actions. Several pharmacologic con- 
cepts important to understanding drug action 
on the nervous system are considered 
throughout. These include selectivity, speci- 
ficity dose-response and receptor theory. Of- 
fered 1987-88, third quarter. Dr. Okamoto 
and staff. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Research in Pharmacology Research op- 
portunities may be arranged throughout the 
year for graduate students who are not major- 
ing in pharmacology but who want some in- 
vestigative experience in the discipline. Spe- 
cial opportunities are offered for work on 
the nervous and cardiovascular systems and 
in biochemical and clinical aspects of 

Seminars The Pharmacology Program of- 
fers seminars in areas of interest to its faculty 
and graduate students. Seminars in clinical 
pharmacology and teaching rounds are held 
regularly throughout the year. The content, 
format and schedule of these seminars are de- 
termined each year on the basis of the num- 
ber and backgrounds of the interested 

Journal Clubs These are offered in areas of 
pharmacology of special interest. Topics in- 
clude the role of oxytocin and prostaglandin 
in labor and dysmenorrhea; regulation of 
opioid peptide biosynthesis; cardiovascular 

pharmacology of anaphylactic responses; neu- 
ropharmacology of drugs of abuse; clinical 
and geriatric pharmacology; clinical drug 
studies in the pediatric population; and pros- 
taglandin and leukotriene pharmacology, their 
action on cardiovascular and renal systems. 
Each topic is one quarter in length; see the 
Program Directors for further information. 

Physiology and Biophysics 

Graduate Program Chairman 

Erich E. Windhager, Department of Physiol- 
ogy and Biophysics, Room C-508, Cornell 
University Medical College, 1300 York Ave- 
nue, New York, NY 10021, (212) 472-5229 

Graduate Program Director 

Thomas Maack, Department of Physiology 
and Biophysics, Room D-407, Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New 
York, NY 10021,(212)472-5281 

Opportunities are offered toward the Ph.D. 
degree in several areas of physiology and bio- 
physics. Ample space is available, and labora- 
tories are well equipped to provide predoc- 
toral training in a medical environment. 
Interested individuals are urged to contact 
the Program Chairman before preparing a for- 
mal application. Letters of inquiry should in- 
clude a discussion of the educational back- 
ground and indicate possible areas of 
emphasis in graduate study. There has been a 
tendency to encourage applications from in- 
dividuals who have a probable interest in 
more than one of the areas of physiology rep- 
resented within the program. 

Applicants must have completed introduc- 
tory courses in biology, inorganic and organic 
chemistry, physics, and mathematics through 
the level of differential and integral calculus. 
Additional course work in these disciplines at 
the undergraduate level is encouraged. Appli- 
cants with otherwise exemplary records who 
lack certain course requirements will be con- 
sidered for acceptance provided that they 
remedy their deficiencies while in training. 

The course of study emphasizes the impor- 
tance of teaching and research in the prepara- 
tion and development of individuals for ca- 
reers in physiology. This goal is achieved by a 
combination of didactic courses, seminars, 
and closely supervised research leading 
toward the preparation of a satisfactory thesis. 

A special program of study will be devel- 
oped for each student in consultation with 


his or her Special Committee. In addition to 
the general requirements set by the Graduate 
School for all programs, all candidates for the 
doctoral degree in physiology will be ex- 
pected to meet the following requirements: 

1 . Evidence of a satisfactory background in 
neurosciences. Ordinarily the course in 
neuroscience described under the Pro- 
gram in Neurobiology and Behavior, or an 
equivalent course, will be taken concur- 
rently with the course in physiology and 

2. Satisfactory completion of the course in 
physiology and biophysics, or an equiva- 
lent course. 

3. For majors and minors in the program, a 
minimum of two elective courses in the 
program ordinarily will be required, in ad- 
dition to the course in Physiology and 


Physiology and Biophysics Lectures and 
conferences on body fluids, bioelectric phe- 
nomena, endocrinology and circulation. 
Third quarter, annually. Dr. W'indhager and 
staff. Endocrinology is taught as an interdisci 
plinary course during two weeks of this 
quarter using hours normally allocated to 
courses in physiology, cell biology, and bio- 
chemistry ( course coordinator: Dr. Greif)- 

Lectures and conferences on respiration, kid- 
ney function, acid-base regulation, and gas 
trointestinal function; and a weekly labora- 
tory on selected aspects of physiology. Fourth 
quarter, annually. Dr. Windhagcr and staff. 

Topics in Membrane Physiology This 
weekly conference is designed for Ph.D. and 
M.D.-Ph.D. students with a major or minor in 
Physiology and Biophysics. It is at a somewhat 
advanced level, especially in its quantitative 
approach to physiology. The aims of the con- 
ference are to train students in physiological 
concepts, to facilitate the understanding of 
lecture material in the Physiology and Bio- 
physics course, and to establish close student- 
faculty contact. Third quarter, annually. Dr. 

Selected Topics in Kidney and Electrolyte 
Physiology and Pathophysiology Lec- 
tures, seminars and demonstrations. Topics 
include: 1 ) GFR, clearance concept, reab- 
sorption and secretion of electrolytes; 2 ) con- 
centrating mechanism; 3 ) electrophysiology 
of the nephron; 4 ) pathophysiology of potas- 
sium; 5 ) renal blood flow and its intrarenal 
distribution; 6) renal physiology in the new- 
born; 7) control of body fluid volume and to- 
nicity; 8) pathology and pathophysiology of 
renal failure; urinary sediment; 9) radiology 
of the kidneys; 10 ) dialysis; 11 ) transplanta- 
tion. Minimum of 8 students. Fourth quarter, 
annually. Drs. Maack, Windhager and staff. 

Ionic Channels The course covers mathe- 
matical and experimental approaches to the 
topic of ion movement through single chan- 
nels. Minimum of 5 students. Prerequisite: 2 
years of calculus. Fourth quarter, annually. Dr. 
Andersen and invited lecturers. 

Physiology of Cardiac Muscle The course 
is designed to present cellular mechanisms 
which are involved in the fundamental pro- 
cesses of excitation and contraction of car- 
diac muscle. Topics include: 1 ) action poten- 
tial; 2 ) ion transport; 3 ) contractility (positive 
and negative inotropic effects); 4) excitation- 
contraction coupling; 5 ) arrhythmias; 6) car- 
diac failure. One laboratory day is planned for 
demonstrations of changes in action potential 
and twitch tension by inotropic agents. Mini- 
mum of 5 students. Prerequisites: third 
quarter physiology or equivalent. Fourth 
quarter, annually. Dr. Lee and invited 

Topics in Gastrointestinal Physiology 

Lectures and Seminars. Topics include: 1 ) 
functional morphology of stomach and intes- 
tine; 2 ) proliferation and differentiation of 
gastrointestinal cells; 3 ) motility of swell in 
esophagus, small intestine and colon; 4) gas- 
tric and intestinal secretion; pancreatic secre- 
tion; 5) lipid absorption; 6) intestinal absorp- 
tion of calcium and vitamin D; 7) structure 
and function of bile acids; 8) gastrointestinal 
hormones. Minimum: 8 students. Fourth 
quarter, annually. Dr. Lipkin and invited ex- 
perts in the field. 




University Administration 

Frank H. T. Rhodes, President of the 

Robert Barker, University Provost 

Thomas H. Meikle, Jr., Provost for Medical 

Affairs and Dean of the Medical College 

James E. Morleyjr, Senior Vice President 

Joseph M. Ballantyne, Vice President for 
Research and Advanced Studies 

John E Burness, Vice President for University 

William D. Gurowitz, Vice President for 

Campus Affairs 
Robert M. Matyas, Vice President for Facilities 

and Business Operations 

Richard M. Ramin, Vice President for Public 

Joycelyn R. Hart, Associate Vice President for 

Human Relations 
Kenneth M. King, Vice Provost for Computing 
James A. Sanderson, Chief Investment Officer 
Maiden C. Nesheim, Vice Provost for Planning 

and Budgeting 

Larry I. Palmer, Vice Provost for Academic 

Walter J. Relihan, Jr., University Counsel and 
Secretary of the Corporation 

Graduate School of Medical 


Frank H. T. Rhodes, President of the 

Alison P Casarett, Dean of the Graduate 

Bernard L. Horecker, Dean of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences, Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School 

Dieter H. Sussdorf, Associate Dean of the 

Ciraduate School of Medical Sciences, 
Assistant Dean of the Ciraduate School 

Richard A. Rifkind, Director, Sloan-Kettering 

Standing Committees 
Executive Committee 

Bernard L. Horecker, Chair 
Alton Meister 
Kenneth I. Berns 
Joseph Bertino 
June L. Biedler 
Walter W. Y. Chan 
David B. Donner 
Meri T. Firpo* 
Donald A. Fischman 
Thomas H. Meikle, Jr. 
Michiko Okamoto 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Lizabeth Romanski* 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Osias Stutman 
Erich E. Windhager 

Faculty Advisory 

Michiko Okamoto, Chair 
Robert Bauchwitz 
Virginia Bayer 
David B. Donner 
Gary E. Gibson 
Bernard L. Horecker* 
Robert W. Knowles 
Thomas Maack 
Kenneth J. Marians 
Thomas H. Meikle, Jr.* 
Richard A. Rifkind* 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Dieter H. Sussdorf* 
Paula Traktman 
Daniel Wellner 

Curriculum Committee 

Donald A. Fischman, Chair 
David B. Donner 
Bo DuPont 

•nonvoting member 

Alton Meister 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Erich E. Windhager 

Credentials Review 

Dieter H. Sussdorf. Chair 
Rosemary E Bachvarova 
Robert W. Knowles 
Joel D. Pardee 
Martin Sonenberg 

M.D.-Ph.D. Program 

Donald A. Fischman, Chair 
Kenneth I. Berns 
Marvin C. Gershengorn 
Jerard Hurwitz 
Ralph L. Nachman 
Osias Stutman 

Committee on Student 

Michiko Okamoto, Chair 
David P Hajjar 
Kenneth O. Lloyd 
Joel D. Pardee 


Albino, Anthony P, Assistant Professor of Im- 
munology. B.A. 1970, Hunter College; 
Ph.D. 1974, Cornell University 

Alonso, Daniel R., Professor of Pathology'. M.D. 
1962, University of Cuyo (Argentina) 

Andersen, Olaf S., Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. Candidatus Medicinae 1971, 
University of Copenhagen ( Denmark ) 

Bachvarova, Rosemary E, Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 1961, 
Radcliffe College; Ph.D., 1966, Rocke- 
feller University 

Bader, David M., Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology 7 and Anatomy B.A. 1974, Augus- 
tana College; Ph.D. 1978, University of 
North Dakota 

Baker, Harriet D., Associate Research Profes- 
sor of Neurology. B.A. 1963, Wells Col- 
lege; M.S. 1967, University of Illinois; 
Ph.D. 1976, University of Iowa 

Bank, Arthur, Adjunct Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy. B.A. 1956, Columbia 
University; M.D. I960, Harvard Univer- 
sity Medical School 

Barany, Francis, Assistant Professor of Micro- 
biology. B.A. 19" 7 6, University of Illinois 
at Chicago Circle; Ph.D. 1981, Rockefel- 
ler University 

Becker, Carl G., Professor of Pathology. B.S. 

1957, Yale University'; M.D. 1961, Cor- 
nell University' 

Bedford, J. Michael, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B.A. 1955, M.A., V.M.D. 

1958, Cambridge University (England); 
Ph.D. 1965, University of London 

( England ) 

Berns, Kenneth I., RA. Rees Pritchett Profes- 
sor of Microbiology. A.B. I960, Ph.D. 
1964, M.D. 1966, Johns Hopkins 

Bertino, Joseph R., Professor of Developmen- 
tal Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
B.S. 1950, Cornell University; M.D. 
1954, Downstate Medical Center 

Besmer, Peter, Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology. M.S. 1964; Ph.D. 1969, 
Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule 

Bianco, Celso, Adjunct Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Anatomy. M.D. 1966, Escola 
Paulista de Medicina (Sao Paulo, Brazil ) 

Biedler, June L., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. A.B. 1947, Vassar College; 
Ph.D. 1959, Cornell University 

Bigler, Rodney E., Associate Professor of Phys- 
iology and Biophysics. B.S. 1966, Port- 
land State College; Ph.D. 1971, Univer- 
sity of Texas 

Black, Ira B., Nathan Cummings Professor of 
Neurology. A.B. 1961, Columbia Col- 
lege; M.D. 1965, Harvard University 


Blass, John R, Winifred Masterson Burke Pro- 
fessor of Neurology. Professor of Medi- 
cine. A.B. 1958, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. I960, University of London (En- 
gland ), M.D. 1965, Columbia University 

Bockman, Richard Steven, Associate Professor 
of Medicine. B.A. 1962, Johns Hopkins 
University; M.D. 1967, Yale University 
School of Medicine; Ph.D. 1971, Rocke- 
feller University 

Boskey, Adele L., Professor of Biochemistry. 

B.A. 1964, Barnard College; Ph.D. 1970, 
Brown University 

Boyse, Edward A., Professor of Immunology 
M.B.B.S. 1952, M.D. 1957, University of 
London ( England ) 

Breslow, Esther M., Professor of Biochemistry. 
B.S. 1953, Cornell University; M.S. 1955, 
Ph.D. 1959, New York University 

Brooks, Dana C, Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. B E E. 1949, M.D. 1957, Cor- 
nell University 

Bullough, Peter, Professor of Pathology. M.D. 
1956, Liverpool University ( England ) 

Cayre, Yvon, Assistant Professor of Immunol- 
ogy. M.D. 1972, Montpellier Faculty of 
Medicine ( France ); Dr. Sci. 1978, Paris 
Faculty of Science (France) 

Chaganti, Raju S., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1954, M.S. 
1955, Andhra University (India); Ph.D. 
1964, Harvard University 

Chan, Walter W. Y, Professor of Pharmacology. 
B.A. 1956, University of Wisconsin; 
Ph.D. 1961, Columbia University 

Chao, Moses V, Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy. B.A. 1973, Pomona 
College; Ph.D. 1980, University of Cali- 
fornia at Los Angeles 

Chou, Ting-Chao, Associate Professor of De- 
velopmental Therapy and Clinical In- 
vestigation. B.S. 1961, Kaohsiung Medi- 
cal College (Taiwan ); M.S. 1965, 
National Taiwan University; Ph.D. 1970, 
Yale University 

Cooper, ArthurJ. L, Associate Research Pro- 
fessor of Biochemistry in Neurology, 
Assistant Professor of Biochemistry. 
B.Sc. 1967, M.Sc. 1969, University of 
London ( England ); Ph.D. 1974, Cornell 

Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew, Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Genetics. M.D. 
I960, Academy of Medicine, Warsaw 
(Poland); Ph.D. 1965, Academy of Medi- 
cine and Polish Academy of Sciences 

Dickerman, Robert W, Associate Professor of 
Microbiology. B.S. 1951, Cornell Univer- 
sity; M.A. 1953, University of Arizona; 
Ph.D. 196 1, University of Minnesota 

Donner, David B., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.A. 1966, 
Queens College; Ph.D. 1972, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute 

Dreyfus, Cheryl E, Assistant Research Profes- 
sor of Developmental Neurology in 
Neurology. Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.S. 1967, Univer- 
sity of Vermont; M.S. 1969, Ph.D. 1976, 
Cornell University 

Dupont, Bo, Professor of Immunology. M.D. 
1966, University of Arhus (Denmark) 

Edelson, Paul, Associate Professor of Pediat- 
rics in Microbiology. A.B. 1964, Univer- 
sity of Rochester; M.D. 1969, State Uni- 
versity of New York, Downstate 
Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York 

Eisinger, Magdalena G., Associate Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics. D.V.M. 1962, 
Agricultural University Kosice 
( Czechoslovakia ) 

Ellis, John T, David D. Thompson Professor of 
Pathology. B.A. 1942, University of 
Texas; M.D. 1945, Northwestern 

Fairciough, Gordon E, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.A. I960, Ph.D. 1966, 
Yale University 

Falck-Pedersen, Erik, Assistant Professor of 

Microbiology. B.A. 1976, North Central 
College; Ph.D. 1982, University of 

Fell, Colin, Associate Professor of Physiology 
and Biophysics. B.A. 195 1, Antioch Col- 
lege; M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 1957, Wayne State 

Felsen, Diane E, Assistant Professor of Phar- 
macology in Surgery. B.A. 1974, Queens 
College; Ph.D. 1979, Mt. Sinai School of 


Fischman, Donald A., Harvey Klein Professor 
of Biomedical Sciences in Cell Biology- 
and Anatomy. A.B. 1957, Kenyon Col- 
lege; M.D. 1961, Cornell University 

Flomenberg, Neal, Assistant Professor of Im- 
munology'. B.S. 1974, Pennsylvania State 
University; M.D. 1976, Jefferson Medi- 
cal College 

Fox, Jack J., Professor of Developmental Ther- 
apy and Clinical Investigation. A.B. 
1939, Ph.D. 1950, University of 

Fried, Jerrold, Associate Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.S. 1958, California Institute of 
Technology; Ph.D. 1964, Stanford 

Gardner, Daniel, Associate Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. A.B. 1966, Co- 
lumbia College; Ph.D. 1971, New York 

Gassjerald D., Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.S. 1957, University' of Okla 
noma; A.M. 1962, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1969. Cornell University 

Gazzaniga, Michael S., Professor of Neuropsy- 
chology in Neurology. A.B. 1961, Dart- 
mouth College; Ph.D. 1964, California 
Institute of Technology 

Gelbard, Allan S., Associate Professor of De- 
velopmental Therapy and Clinical In- 
vestigation. B.S. 1955, Brookly n Col- 
lege; M.S. 1956, University of 
Massachusetts; Ph.D. 1959, University 
of Wisconsin 

Geller, Nancy L., Assistant Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.S. 1965, City University of 
New York; M A. 1967, Case Institute of 
Technology ; Ph.D. 1972, Case Western 
Reserve University 

German, James L. Ill, Clinical Professor of Pe- 
diatrics. B.S. 1945, Louisiana Polytech- 
nic Institute; M.D. 1949, Southwestern 
Medical College 

Gershengorn, Marvin C, Abbey Rockefeller 
Mauze Distinguished Professor of En- 
docrinology in Medicine. Professor of 
Medicine in Physiology and Biophysics. 
B.S. 1967, City College of the City Uni- 
versity of New York; M.D. 1971, New 
York University- School of Medicine 

Gibbs, James G. Jr., Associate Professor of Psy- 
chiatry. B.S. 1960, Trinity College; M.D. 
1964, Medical College of South 

Gibson, Gary E., Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry in Neurology. B.S. 1968, Uni- 
versity of Wyoming; Ph.D. 1973, Cor- 
nell University^ 

Gilboa, Eli, Associate Professor of Molecular 
Biology. B.Sc. 1971, M.Sc. 1973, Hebrew 
University, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1977, Weiz- 
mann Institute of Science. 

Gilder, Helena, Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry Adjunct Associate Profes- 
sor of Pediatrics. A.B. 1935, Vassar Col- 
lege; M.D. 1940, Cornell University- 
Goldstein, Jack, Adjunct Associate Professor 
of Biochemistry. B.A. 1952, Brooklyn 
College; M.N.S. 1957, Ph.D. 1959, Cor- 
nell University 

Graf, Lloy d H. Jr., Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Genetics in Obstetrics and Gynecol- 
ogy. B.S. 1967, Ph.D. 1972, Duke 

Grafstein, Bernice, Vincent and Brook Astor 
Distinguished Professor of Neurosci- 
ence in Physiology and Biophysics. B.A. 
195 1, University of Toronto (Canada); 
Ph.D. 1954, McGill University (Canada) 

Greif, Roger L., Emeritus Professor of Physiol- 
ogy- and Biophysics. B.S. 1937, Haver- 
ford College; M.D. 1941, Johns Hopkins 

Griffith, Owen W, Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. B.A. 1968, University of Cali- 
fornia at Berkeley; Ph.D. 1976, Rocke- 
feller University 

Hajjar, David P, Associate Professor of Pathol- 
ogy. Associate Professor of Biochemis- 
try. B.A. 1974, American International 
College; M.S. 1977, Ph.D. 1978, Univer- 
sity of New Hampshire 

Halmi, Katherine A., Professor of Psychiatry. 
B.A. 1961, M.D. 1965, University of Iowa 

Hammerling, Ulrich, Professor of Immunol- 
ogy. Diplom 196 1 Universitat Freiburg 
(Germany); Ph.D. 1965, Max Planck In- 
stitut fur Immunobiologie (Germany) 

Haschemeyer, Rudy H., Professor of Biochem- 
istry. B.A. 1952, Carthage College; Ph.D. 
1957, University of Illinois 


Hayward, William S., Professor of Molecular 
Biology. B.A. 1964, University of Califor- 
nia, Riverside; Ph.D. 1969, University of 
California, San Diego 

Hinkle, Lawrence E. Jr., Professor of Medicine; 
Professor of Medicine in Psychiatry. 
B.A. 1938, University of North Carolina; 
M.D. 1942, Harvard University 

Hoffmann, Michael K., Associate Professor of 
Immunology. M.D. 1966, Universitat 
Tubingen (Germany) 

Holloman, William, Professor of Microbiology. 
B.S. 1967, University of Texas; Ph.D. 
1971, University of California, Berkeley 

Horecker, Bernard L., Dean, Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. B.S. 1936, Ph.D. 1939, Uni 
versity of Chicago 

Hosein, Barbara H., Adjunct Assistant Profes- 
sor of Cell Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 
1969, University of Kansas; M.S. 1971, 
Ph.D. 1973, University of Michigan 

Houghton, Alan, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. B.A. 1970, Stanford University; 
M.D. 1974, University of Connecticut 

Hurwitz, Jerard, Professor of Molecular Biol- 
ogy. B.A. 1949, Indiana University; Ph.D. 
1953, Western Reserve University 

Hutchison, Dorris J., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1940, Western Ken- 
tucky State College; M.S. 1943, Univer- 
sity of Kentucky; Ph.D. 1949, Rutgers 

Iacovitti, Lorraine, Assistant Professor of Neu- 
robiology in Neurology. B.S. 1973, Mon- 
mouth College; Ph.D. 1979, Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical 

Inturrisi, Charles E., Professor of Pharmacol- 
ogy. B.S. 1962, University of Connecti- 
cut; M.S. 1965, Ph.D. 1967, Tulane 

Jacobs, Patricia A., Professor of Genetics in 

Pediatrics. Professor of Genetics in Ob- 
stetrics and Gynecology. B.Sc. 1956, 
D.Sc. 1966, St. Andrews University 

Jack, Joseph R., Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology. B.A. 1972, Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1978, University of Texas 

Jaffe, Eric, Professor of Medicine. M.D. 1966, 
State University of New York, Down- 
state Medical Center 

Joh, Tong Hyub, Professor of Neurobiology in 
Neurology. B.S. 1953, Seoul National 
University (Korea); Ph.D. 1971, New 
York University 

Keithly Jan S., Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ology; Assistant Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy in Medicine. B.S. 1963, Central Mis- 
souri State University; Ph.D. Iowa State 

King, Thomas K. C, Associate Professor of 

Medicine, Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine in Physiology and Biophysics. 
M.B.B.Ch. 1959, M.D. 1963, University 
of Edinburgh (United Kingdom) 

Klein, Irwin L., Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.A. 1969, University of Pennsyl- 
vania; M.D. 1973, New York University 
School of Medicine 

Knowles, Robert, Assistant Professor of Im- 
munology. A.B. 1970, Bowdoin College; 
Ph.D. 1976, Pennsylvania State 

Kourides, lone A., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.A. 1963, 
Wellesley College; M.D. 1967, Harvard 

Krug, Robert M ., Professor of Molecular Biol- 
ogy. B.A. 1961, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1966, Rockefeller University 

Lacy, Elizabeth, Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology. B.A. 1974, University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D. 1980, California In 
stitute of Technology 

Lai, Chun-Yen, Adjunct Professor of Biochem- 
istry. B.S. 1953, M.S. 1957'National Tai- 
wan University; Ph.D. 1961, University 
of Illinois 

Laughlin, John S., Professor of Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. A.B. 
1940, Willamette University; Ph.D. 
1947, University of Illinois 

LeDoux, Joseph E., Assistant Professor of Neu- 
rology. B.S. 1971, M.S. 1974, Louisiana 
State University; Ph.D. 1977, State Uni 
versity of New York at Stony Brook 

Lee, Chin Ok, Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.S. 1967, Seoul National 
University (Korea); Ph.D. 1973, Indiana 
University School of Medicine 


Lee, Janet, Assistant Professor of Immunology. 
B.A. 1972, University of Minnesota; M.S. 
1974, University of Wisconsin; Ph.D. 
1979, University of California at San 

Levi, Roberto, Professor of Pharmacology. 
M.D. I960, University of Florence 

Levy, David E., Associate Professor of Neurol- 
ogy. A.B. 1963, M.D. 1968, Harvard 

Lin, Chiann-Tso, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Diploma of Engi- 
neering 1963, Taipei Institute of Tech 
nology; Diploma of Chemistry ( Master ) 
1970, Technical University of Braun- 
schweig ( West Germany ); Ph.D. 1974, 
University of Frankfurt (West Germany ) 

Lipkin, Martin, Professor of Medicine. A B. 

1946, M.D. 1950, New York University 

Lloyd, Kenneth O., Associate Professor of Im- 
munology. Ph.D. 1960, University of 
College of North Wales (U.K.) 

Lockard, Raymond E., Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.S. 1966, Syracuse Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1972, University of 

Lustig, Arthur J., Assistant Professor of Mok e 
ular Biology. B.A. 1975, Ph.D. 1981, The 
University of Chicago 

Maack, Thomas, Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.D. 1962, University of 
Sao Paulo ( Brazil ) 

Mann, J. John, Associate Professor of Psychia- 
try. B.S., M.D. 1971, University of Mel 
bourne (Australia) 

Marians, Kenneth J., Associate Professor of 
Molecular Biology. B.S. 1972, Polytech- 
nic Institute of Brooklyn; Ph.D. 1976, 
Cornell University 

Marks, Paul A., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. A.B. 1945, Columbia Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1949, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Columbia University 

Meister, Alton, Israel Rogosin Professor of Bio- 
chemistry B.S. 1942, Harvard Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1945, Cornell University 

Melamed, Myron R., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1947, Western Re- 
serve University; M.D. 1950, University 
of Cincinnati 

Melera, Peter W, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. A.A.S. 1963, State Univer- 
sity of New York at Cobleskill; B.S.A. 
1965, Ph.D. 1969, University of Georgia 

Minick, C. Richard, Professor of Pathology. 

B.S. 1957, University of Wyoming; M.D. 
I960, Cornell University 

Montal, Mauricio, Adjunct Professor of Phar- 
macology. Ph.D. 1970, University of 
Pennsylvania; M.D. 1971, National Uni- 
versity of Mexico 

Moore, Malcolm A. S., Professor of Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. M B. 1963, B.A. 1964, 
D. Phil. 1967, M A. 1970, Oxford Univer- 
sity ( England ) 

Morton, Newton E., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.A. 1951, University of 
Hawaii; M.S. 1952, Ph.D. 1955, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin 

Muller-Eberhard, Ursula, Professor of Pediat- 
rics; Professor of Pharmacology. M.D. 
1953, University of Gotringen 

Murray, Henry W, Associate Professor of Mi- 
crobiology. B.A. 1968, Cornell Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1972, Cornell University 
Medical College 

Nachman, Ralph L, Professor of Medicine. 
A.B. 1953, M.D. 1956, Vanderbilt 

Nathan, Carl, Stanton Griffis Distinguished 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1967, Har- 
vard University; M.D. 1972, Harvard 
Medical School. 

Neff, Norma, Assistant Professor of Molecular 
Biology. B.A. 1974, Rice University; 
Ph.D. 1978, University of California, 

Novogrodsky, Abraham, Professor of Bio- 
chemistry M.D. 1960, Hebrew Univer- 
sity Medical School, Jerusalem; Ph.D. 
1974, Weizmann Institute of Science, 
Rehovot ( Israel ) 

O'Donnell, Michael E., Assistant Professor of 
Microbiology. B.S. 1975, University of 
Portland; Ph.D. 1982, University of 

O'Donnell, Paul V, Associate Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology. B.S. 1968, Rensselaer 
Polytechnic Institute; Ph.D. 1973, Cor- 
nell University 


Oettgen, Herbert E, Professor of Immunology. 
M.D. 195 L, University of Cologne 

Okamoto, Michiko, Professor of Pharmacol- 
ogy. B.S. 1954, Tokyo College of Phar- 
macy (Japan ); M.S. 1957, Purdue Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1964, Cornell University 

Old, Lloyd J., Professor of Immunology. B.A. 
1955, M.D. 1958, University of 

O'Leary William M., Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy. B.S. 1952, M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 1957, 
University of Pittsburgh 

O'Reilly, Richard J., Professor of Immunology 7 . 
A.B. 1964, College of the Holy Cross; 
M.D. 1968, University of Rochester 

Osley Mary Ann, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. B.A. 1967, Wheaton Col- 
lege; Ph.D. 1973, Yale University 

Otter, Brian A., Associate Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.Sc. 1962, Ph.D. 1965, Univer- 
sity of Bristol ( England ) 

Palmer, Lawrence G., Associate Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics. B.A. 1970, 
Swarthmore College; Ph.D. 1976, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania 

Pardee, Joel D., Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy. B.S. 1973, Colorado 
State University; Ph.D. 1978, Stanford 

Pasternak, Gavril W, Associate Professor of 
Pharmacology. B.A. 1969, M.D. 1973, 
Ph.D. 1974, Johns Hopkins University 

Pelus, Louis M., Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Genetics. B.A. 1973, Queens 
College of the City University of New 
York; M.S. 1977, Ph.D. 1977, Rutgers 

Pasternak, Gavril W., Associate Professor of 

Neurology. Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology. B.A. 1969, M.D. 1973, Ph.D. 
1974, Johns Hopkins University 

Pelus. Louis M., Assistant Professor of C -ell Bi- 
ology and Genetics. B.A. 1973, Queens 
College of the City University of New 
York; M.S. 1977 Ph.D. 1977 Rutgers 

Petito, Carol K., Professor of Pathology. B.S. 
1963, Jackson College; M.D. 1967 Co- 
lumbia University 

Pickel, Virginia M., Professor of Neurobiology 
in Neurology. B.S. 1965, M.S. 1967, Uni- 
versity of Tennessee; Ph.D. 1970, Van- 
derbilt University 

Pickering, Thomas G., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1962, M.A. 1968, Cambridge Uni- 
versity (England); Ph.D. 1970, Oxford 
University ( England) 

Plum, Fred, Anne Parrish Titzell Professor of 
Neurology. B.A. 1944, Dartmouth Col- 
lege; M.D. 1947, Cornell University 

Prince, Alfred M., Clinical Associate Professor 
of Pathology. A.B. 1949, Yale University; 
M.A. 195 1, Columbia University; M.D. 
1955, Western Reserve University 

Quimby, Fred, Associate Professor of Pathol- 
ogy. VD.M. 1970, University of Pennsyl- 
vania School of Veterinary Medicine; 
Ph.D. 1974, University of Pennsylvania 
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences 

Rabellino, Enrique ML, Senior Research Asso- 
ciate Professor of Medicine. B.S. 1959, 
Institute J. M. Paz (Argentina); M.D. 
1965, University of Cordoba 
(Argentina ) 

Rabkin, Samuel D., Assistant Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology. B.Sc. 1976, University 
of Toronto; M.Sc. 1978, Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem; Ph.D. 1983, Univer- 
sity of Chicago 

Rachele, Julian R., Emeritus Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. B.A. 1934, M.S. 1935, Ph.D. 
1939, New York University 

Ra vetch, Jeffrey A., Associate Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology. B.S. 1973, Yale Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1978, Rockefeller University; 
M.D. 1979, Cornell University 

Ray, James H., Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 1967, 
Murray State University; M.S. 1969, Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, Ph.D. 1976, Univer- 
sity of Houston 

Rayson, Barbara, Assistant Professor of Phy si- 
ology and Biophysics; Assistant Profes- 
sor of Medicine in Phy siology. B.Sc. 
1972, Ph.D. 1976, University of Mel 
bourne (Australia) 

Reeves, John P, Adjunct Associate Professor of 
Physiology and Biophy sics. B.S. 1964, 
Juniata College; Ph.D. 1969, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology 


Rcidenberg, Marcus M., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1954, Cornell University; 
M.D. 1958, Temple University 

Reis, Donald J., George C. Cotzias Distin- 
guished Professor of Neurology. A.B. 
1953, M D. 1956, Cornell University 

Rifkind, Arleen B., Professor of Pharmacology; 
Associate Professor of Medicine. B.A. 

1960, Bryn Mawr College; M.D. 1964, 
New York University 

Rifkind, Richard A., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 195 1, Yale University; 
M.D. 1955, Columbia University 

Riker, Walter F Jr., Revlon Pharmaceutical 
Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology. 
B.S. 1939, Columbia University; M.D. 
1943. Cornell University 

Rodman, Toby C, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B.S. 1937 Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and Science; M.S. 

1961, Ph.D. 1963, New York University 

Rodriguez-Bouland, Enrique, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Cell Biology and Anatomy. B.A. 
1963, National College of Buenos Aires; 
M.D. 1970, University of Buenos Aires 

Rosen, Ora M., Professor of Molecular Biology. 
B.A. 1956, Barnard College; M l) I960. 
Columbia University 

Rothermel, Constance Davis, Assistant Profes- 
sor of Microbiology. B.S. 1964, West Vir- 
ginia University; M.S. 1967, University 
of North Carolina; Ph.D. 1980, Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical 

Rottenberg, David A., Associate Professor of 
Neurology B.A. 1963, University of 
Michigan; M.Sc. 1967, University of 
Cambridge (England); M.D. 1969, Har- 
vard University 

Rubin, Albert L., Professor of Biochemistry 

Professor of Surgery. Professor of Medi- 
cine. M.D. 1950, Cornell University 

Ruggiero, David A., Assistant Professor of 

Neurobiology' in Neurology. B.A. 1972, 
Queens College of the City University 
of New York; M A. 1976, M. Phil. 1977, 
Ph.D. 1977, Columbia University 

Safai, Bijan, Assistant Professor of Immunol- 
ogy. M.D. 1965, University' of Teheran 
Medical School ( Iran ) 

Santos-Buch, Charles A., Professor of Pathol- 
ogy. A.B. 1953, Harvard University; 
M.D. 1957, Cornell University 

Saxena, Brij B., Professor of Endocrinology in 
Obstetrics and Gynecology. Ph.D. 1954, 
University of Lucknow ( India ); D.Sc. 
1957, University' of Munster (Germany ); 
Ph.D. 1961, University' of Wisconsin 

Schleifer, Leonard S., Assistant Professor of 
Neurology. A.B. 1973, Cornell Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1977, University of Virginia 
School of Medicine; Ph.D. 1980, Univer- 
sity of Virginia 

Schubert, Edward T, Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry in Pediatrics. B.S. 1949, 
M.S. 1952, Ph.D. 1959, Fordham 

Schw artz, Morton K., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.A. 1948, Lehigh University; 
Ph.D. 1952, Boston University 

Sechzer, Jeri A., Associate Professor of Psy- 
chology in Psychiatry. B.S. 1956, New 
York University; M A. 1961, Ph.D. 1962, 
University of Pennsylvania 

Sen. Ganes C, Associate Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology. B.S. 1965, M.S. 1967, Cal- 
cutta I iniversity ( India ); Ph.D. 1974, 
McMaster University ( Canada ) 

Scnternt, Laurence B., Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy. Professor of Pathology. B.S. 1949, 
M.S. 1950, University of Florida; Sc.D. 
1955, Johns Hopkins University 

Shapiro, Joan Rankin, Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology in Neurology. B.S. I960, 
Westminster College; M.S. 1968, New 
York University; M A. 1970, Hofstra Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1979, Cornell University 

Sheffery Michael, Assistant Professor of Mo- 
lecular Biology. A.B. 1975, M.S. 1977, 
Ph.D. 1981, Princeton University 

Sherline, Peter, Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine. A.B. and M.D. 1968, Boston Uni- 
versity Medical School 

Silverstein, Roy L., Clinical Assistant Professor 
of Medicine. B.S. 1975, Brown Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1979, Emory University 
School of Medicine 

Siniscalco, Marcello, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. M.D. 1948, University of 
Naples (Italy) 


Sirlin, Julio L., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. D.Sc. 1953, University of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 

Sirotnak, Francis M, Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.S. 1950, University of Scranton; 
Ph.D. 1954, University of Maryland 

Siskind, Gregory W., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1955, Cornell University; M.D. 
1959, New York University 

Smith, Gerard P, Professor of Psychiatry ( Be- 
havioral Science). B.S. 1956, St. Joseph's 
College; M.D. I960, University of 

Soffer, Richard L., Professor of Biochemistry. 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1954, Am- 
herst College, M.D. 1958, Harvard 

Soinick, David, Assistant Professor of Molecu- 
lar Biology. B.A. 1976, University of Cal- 
ifornia, Santa Cruz; Ph.D. 1981, SUNY, 
Stony Brook 

Sonenberg, Martin, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1941, University of 
Pennsylvania; M.D. 1944, Ph.D. 1952, 
New York University 

Staiano-Coico, Lisa, Assistant Professor of Mi- 
crobiology in Surgery. B.S. 1976, Brook- 
lyn College; Ph.D. 1981, Cornell Univer- 
sity Graduate School of Medical 

Stenzel, Kurt H., Professor of Biochemistry. 

Professor of Surgery. Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.S. 1954, New York University; 
M.D. 1958, Cornell University 

Stephenson, John L., Professor of Biomathe- 
matics in Physiology and Biophysics. 
B.A. 1943, Harvard University; M.D. 

1949, University of Illinois 

Sternberg, Stephen S., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.A. 1941, Colby College; M.D. 
1944, New York University 

Stokes, Peter E., Professor of Medicine. Profes- 
sor of Psychiatry. B.S. 1958, Trinity Col- 
lege; M.D. 1952, Cornell University 

Stutman, Osias, Professor of Immunology. B.A. 

1950, Colegio Nacional Sarmiento (Ar- 
gentina); M.D. 1957, Buenos Aires Uni- 
versity Medical School (Argentina) 

Sugg, John V, Emeritus Professor of Microbiol- 
ogy. A.B. 1926, M.S. 1928, Ph.D. 1931, 
Vanderbilt University 

Sussdorf, Dieter H., Associate Dean, Associate 
Professor of Microbiology. B.A. 1952, 
University of Missouri; Ph.D. 1956, Uni- 
versity of Chicago 

Szabo, Paul, Assistant Professor of Molecular 
Biology in Medicine. B.S. 1971, Ph.D. 
1974, University of Illinois 

Szeto, Hazel H., Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology B.S. 1972, Indiana University; 
Ph.D., M.D. 1977, Cornell University 

Tate, Suresh S., Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. B.Sc. 1958, M.Sc. I960, Uni- 
versity of Baroda (India); Ph.D. 1963, 
University of London (England ) 

Teintze, Martin, Assistant Professor of Cell Bi- 
ology and Anatomy. B.S. 1976, Califor- 
nia Institute of Technology; Ph.D. 1981, 
University of California 

Teitelman, Gladys N., Associate Research Pro- 
fessor of Neurobiology in Neurology. Li- 
cendiada in Biology 1962, University of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ph.D. 1971, 
University of Pennsylvania 

Thaler, Howard T, Assistant Professor of De- 
velopmental Therapy and Clinical In- 
vestigation. B.A. 1967, University of Cal- 
ifornia at Los Angeles; Ph.D. 1974, State 
University of New York at Buffalo 

Townes-Anderson, Ellen, Assistant Professor 
of Physiology and Biophysics. B.A. 
1968, Connecticut College; M A. 1971, 
University of California at Berkeley; 
Ph.D. 1980, Boston University School of 

Traktman, Paula, Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. Assistant Profes- 
sor of Cell Biology and Anatomy in Mi- 
crobiology. A.B. 1974, Radciiffe College, 
Harvard University; Ph.D. 1981, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology 

Udenfriend, Sidney, Adjunct Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. B.S. 1939, City College of 
New York; M.S. 1942, Ph.D. 1948, New 
York University' 


Urban, Bernd W., Assistant Professor of Anes- 
thesiology Assistant Professor of Anes- 
thesiology in Physiology and Biophys- 
ics. Diplom der Physik (Master) 1974, 
University of Karlsruhe (West Ger- 
many); Ph.D. 19 ""8, University of Cam- 
bridge (England) 

Victor. Jonathan D., Associate Professor of 

Neurology. B.A. 1973, Harvard Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1979, Rockefeller University; 
M.D. 1980, Cornell University Medical 

Wall, Doris A., Assistant Professor of Cell Biol 
ogy and Anatomy. B.A. 1970, University 
of New Hampshire; Ph.D. 1975, Cornell 

Watanabe, Kyoichi A., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. Ph.D. 1963. Hokkaido University 
(Japan ) 

Weinstein, Alan M., Associate Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics. Assistant 
Professor of Medicine. A.B 1971, 
Princeton University; M.D. 1975, Har- 
vard University 

Weksler. Babette B., Professor of Medicine. 
B.A. 1958, Swarthmore College; M.D. 
1963, Columbia University 

Weksler, Marc E., Irving Sherwood NX right 
Professor of Geriatrics in Medicine. 
B.A 1958, Swarthmore College; M.D. 
1962, Columbia University 

Wellner, Daniel, Associate Professor of Bio- 
chemistry. A.B. 1956, Harvard Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1961, Tufts University 

Windhager, Erich E., Maxwell M. Upson Pro- 
fessor of Physiology and Biophysics. 
M.D. 1954, University of Vienna 

Wong, George Y, Assistant Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.A. 1973, Rice University; M.A. 
1975, Ph.D. 1978, Harvard University 

Woods, Kenneth R., Adjunct Associate Profes- 
sor of Biochemistry. B.A. 1948, Arizona 
State University; Ph.D. 1955, University 
of Minnesota 

Yang, Soo Young, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.S. 1972, Minnesota State Uni- 
versity; Ph.D. 1981, New York 

Young, Robert C, Associate Professor of Psy- 
chiatry in Neurobiology. B.A. 1969, Wil- 
liams College; M.D. 1974, Cornell 

Zakim, David, V incent Astor Distinguished 
Professor of Medicine. B.A. 1956, Cor- 
nell University; M.D. 1961, State Univer- 
sity of New York Downstate Medical 

Zeitz, Louis, Associate Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. A.B. 19-t8, University of California; 
Ph.D. 1962, Stanford University 


Degree Recipients 1986-87 

Doctors of Philosophy 

Askari, Frederick K., B.A. 1981, Cornell Uni- 
versity. Pharmacology, Professor Walter 
Riker. Thesis: "Molecular Determinants 
of Carbamate Drug Action on Mammal- 
ian Neuromuscular Function" 

Blank, Seymour G., B E E. 1965, City Univer- 
sity of New York: M.E.E. 1968, New 
York University. Physiology and Bio- 
physics, Professor Thomas G. Pickering. 
Thesis: "The Korotkoff Signal and Its 
Relationship to the Arterial Pressure 

Brennan, Lynn A., B.A. 1974, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Molecular Biology, Professor Ed- 
ward Stavnezer. Thesis: "Molecular 
Cloning of the Viral Oncogene V SKI, 
and Its Chicken Cellular Homolog, 

Doucette, Lynn Anne, B.Sc. 1981, McMaster 
University ( Canada ). Cell Biology and 
Genetics, Professor Raju S. K. Chaganti. 
Thesis: "Molecular Analysis of t( 14:18 ) 
Translocation in Non-Hodgkins 

Green, William N., B.Sc. 1978, University of 
Toronto. Physiology and Biophysics, 
Professor Olaf S. Andersen. Thesis: 
"Studies of Batrachotoxin-Modined So- 
dium Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers" 

Hariri, Robert J., B.A. 1980, Columbia College. 
Pathology, Professor Daniel Alonso. 
Thesis: "The Role of Aging in the De- 
velopment of Myointimal Hyperplasia 
Following Arterial Injury" 

Levine, Sulamita, M.D. 1975, M.S. 1980, Uni- 
versity of Zulia Medical School ( Vene- 
zuela ). Neurobiology and Behavior, 
Professor Tong H. Joh. Thesis: "Immu- 
nochemical and Immunocytochemical 
Characterization of Histidine Decar- 
boxylase Prepared by a Rapid and Effi- 
cient Purification Procedure" 

Lulkin, Thomas C, A.B. 1981, University of 

California, Berkeley. Molecular Biology, 
Professor F Carter Bancroft. Thesis: 
"Cis-Acting DNA Elements Responsible 
for the Cell-Type Specific Expression 
and Hormonal Regulation of the Prolac- 
tin and Growth Hormone Genes" 

Michitsch, Richard W, B.A. 1975, M.S. 1978, 

New York University. Molecular Biology, 
Professor Peter Melera. Thesis: "Isola- 
tion and Characterization of the N-MYC 

Shapiro, Geoffrey Ira, B.A. 1981, Columbia 

University. Molecular Biology, Professor 
Robert M. Krug. Thesis. "Influenza Vi- 
rus Gene Expression: Viral Replication 
in vivo and in vitro" 

Stinavage, Paul S., A.A.S. 1977, State University 
ofNewYorkatMorrisville: B.S. 1981, 
Marywood College. Microbiology, Pro- 
fessor Laurence B. Senterfit. Thesis: 
"The Role of Adrenal Hormones in the 
Hyperglycemic Response to Infection 
in Streptozotocin Diabetic C57BL/KsJ 

Weisman, Steven M., B.S., B.A. 1981, Fairleigh 
Dickinson University. Pharmacology, 
Professor Diane Felsen. Thesis: "In- 
volvement of Platelet-activating Factor 
in the Release of Prostaglandins in Uni- 
lateral Ureteral Obstruction" 

Yangjung-Mou, M B. 1979, National Defense 
Medical Center (People s Republic of 
China ). Physiology and Biophysics, Pro- 
fessor Erich Windhager. Thesis. "Role 
of Intracellular Calcium Ions in Regula- 
tion of Na Transport" 

Master of Science 

Ark, Belinda Chan, A.B. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Cell Biology and Genetics, Pro- 
fessor Dorothea Bennett. Thesis: 
"Mapping of the Pirn- 1 Oncogene 
to t-haplotypes in the Mouse" 


Students 1987-88 

Candidates for the Degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy 

Abate, Corinne, B.A. 1983, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Brooklyn, New York 

Ann, Jong C, B.S. 1979, Seoul National Univer- 
sity; M.S. 1981, Korea Advanced Insti- 
tute of Science and Technology. Major: 
Molecular Biology. Gy ounggido, Korea 

Arnold, James B., B.A 1982. Columbia Col- 
lege. Major: Neurobiology and Behav- 
ior New York, New York 

Bannerji, Rajat, B.A. 1986, Cornell University. 
Major. Cell Biology and Genetics. Dur- 
gapur. India 

Barnhart, Kerry M.. B.S. 1983. M S 1985. Uni- 
versity of Arizona. Major: Molecular Bi- 
ology. Tucson. Arizona 

1 "Batter, David K., B.S. 1979, I nivcrsity of Con- 
necticut. Major: Cell Biology and Ge- 
netics. New Haven, Connecticut 

Bauchwitz, Robert P, B.A. 1982, Harvard Uni- 
versity. Major: Molecular Biology. Wil- 
mington, Delaware 

Bayer, Virginia E., B.A./B.S. 1981, University of 
California. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Newport Beach. California 

Becker, Murray, B.A. 1985, University of 

Berger. Scott B., B.A. 1983, Emory University. 
Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Bisaha, Joseph G., B.A. 1986, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Perth Amboy. New Jersey 

Blumenthal, Jeffrey A., B.A. 1985, Yassar Col- 
lege. Major: Immunology. Glenwood, 

Brayton, Cory Flagg, B.A. 1981, Williams Col 
lege; D.V.M. 1985, New York State Col- 
lege of Veterinary Medicine. Major: Mi- 
crobiology, Immunology, and Pathology. 
New York, New York 

Brock, Alice M., A.B. 1978, Smith College; 

M.S.H.S. 1980, Northeastern University. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Scarsdale, New York 

Brooks, David G., B.A. 1982, University of Col- 
orado; M.S. 1984, Michigan State Uni- 
versity. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Rochester, Michigan 

Buck, Charles R., B.S. 1983, College of Idaho. 
Major. Cell Biology and Genetics. Cald- 
well, Idaho 

Chiu, Chang-Fang, M.D. 1980, Taipei Medical 
College. Major: Pharmacology. Taipei, 
Taiwan, Republic of China 

-Choy, Janet Wing, A.B. 1977, Smith College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Wayne, New Jersey 

Clurman, Bruce E., B.A. 1981, University of 
V irginia. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 

Crombie, Andrea R., B.A. 1981, Goucher Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. San 
Diego, California 

DeCarlo, MicheleJ., B.A. 1986, Lafayette Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania 

del Balzo, Ughetta, B.A. 1981, Barnard Col- 
lege. Major: Pharmacology. Rome. Italy 

Dicker. Adam P, B.A. 1984, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Great Neck, New York 

DiSanto, James P, B.A. 1983, Johns Hopkins 

University. Major: Immunology. Cherry 
Hill, New Jersey 

Donnelly, Robert E.. B.S. 1985, University of 
California. Major. Biochemistry. Cuper 
tino, California 

^Drozdoff, Vladimir V, B.A. 1979, Bowdoin 
College. Major: Developmental Ther- 
apy and Clinical Investigation. Cooper, 

Einheber, Steven, B.S. 1981, George Washing- 
ton University. Major: OH Biology and 
Genetics. Washington, D C. 

'in absentia 
2 leave of absence 
Candidate for degree only 


Ennulat, Cynthia L., B.A. 1980, State University 
of New York, Oswego; M.S. 1985, Syra- 
cuse University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Brewerton, New York 

Escandon, Enrique M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 
Mexico. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Mexico City, Mexico 

Evans, Elizabeth V, B.A. 1980, Bennington 

College. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. La Jolla, California 

Febbraio, Maria, B.S. 1982, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Microbiology, Immunology, 
and Pathology. Staten Island, New York 

Fernandez-Almonacid, Rafael, B.Sc. 1980, 
M.Sc. 1985, Universidad Austral De 
Chile. Major: Molecular Biology. Valdi- 
via, Chile 

Firpo, Meri T., B.A. 1984, Carroll College. Ma- 
jor: Cell Biology and Genetics. Helena, 

Fotheringham, Robert Scott, B.Sc. 1985, Uni- 
versity of Guelph. Major: Molecular Bi- 
ology. Ontario, Canada 

^Foxman, Brett, B.A. 1982, Boston University; 
M.D. 1982, Boston University School of 
Medicine. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior. Penn Valley, Pennsylvania 

^Gamble, David A., D.V.M. 1978, Washington 
State University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Ithaca, 
New York 

Geisberg, Mark S., B.S. 1985, Yale University. 
Major: Immunology. Leningrad, USSR 

Gilbert, Gretchen E., B.A. 1982, Swarthmore 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. Syra- 
cuse, New York 

Greenberg, Adam, A.B. 1981, Bard College. 

Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
Rochelle, New York 

Greenlee, Paul G., B.S. 1977, Oklahoma State 
University; D.V.M. 1980, Oklahoma 
State University; M.S. 1982, Oklahoma 
State University. Major: Microbiology 
Immunology, and Pathology. New York, 
New York 

Groden, Joanna L, B.A. 1978, Middlebury Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Gulati, Poonam, B.A. 1982, Cornell University. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Collins, New York 

'Gummere, Gregory R., B.A. 1979, M.S. 1981, 
University of Cincinnati. Major: Cell Bi- 
ology and Genetics. Cincinnati, Ohio 

Gundersen, Doris L, B.A. 1977, Clark Univer 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
West Babylon, New York 

Hahn, Mounou, B.S. 1985, University of Wis- 
consin. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Seoul, Korea 

Hahn, Soonjung Lucia, B.S. 1983, Seoul Na- 
tional University; M.S. 1985, University 
of Wisconsin. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Seoul, Korea 

Hearn, Timothy J., B.S. 1983, Penn State Uni- 
versity. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior. Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Heinrich, N. Julia, B.A. 1977, Brown University. 
Major: Molecular Biology. New York, 
New York 

Hodgins, Gregory W. L., B.Sc. 1985, University 
of Toronto. Major . Molecular Biology. 
Ontario, Canada 

Hong, Guangyuan, B.S. 1982, M.S. 1985, Pe- 
king University. Major: Molecular Biol- 
ogy. Peking, People's Republic of China 

Huang, Chin-shiou, B.S. 1982, Kaohsiung Med- 
ical College; M.S. 1984, National Tsing 
Hua University. Hsinchu, Taiwan 

Hume, Clifford R., B.A. 1983, Carleton Col- 
lege. Major: Immunology. Incline Vil- 
lage, Nevada 

Hwang, Onyou, A.B. 1982. Smith College. Ma- 
jor: Neurobiology and Behavior. Seoul, 

Jenkins, Deborah L, B.A. 1983, Williams Col- 
lege. Major: Biochemistry. Amherst, 

Johnson, Ellen L, B.A. 1983, Oberlin College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Tarpon 
Springs, Florida 

Kane, Eileen M., B.A. 1985, Hunter College. 
Major: Molecular Biology'. New York, 
New York 

Kanter, Madge R., B.A. 1982, University of Cal- 
ifornia at Santa Cruz. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Palo Alto, California 


Kelly, Catherine D., B.A. 1981, State University 
of New York at Purchase. Major: Micro- 
biology, Immunology, and Pathology. 
Rockville Centre, New York 

Kenny, Mark K., B.A. 1983, Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology Chappa- 
qua, New York 

Kim, Chul Geun, B.S. 1981, Han Yang Univer- 
sity; M.S. 1983, Seoul National Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Yesan, 

Knudsen, Beatrice S., M.S. 1982, University of 
Vienna. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Vienna, Austria 

Kornack, David R., B.S. 1983, Northern Illinois 
University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Lombard, Illinois 

Kunzi, Myriam S., B.A. 1984, Wellesley Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology' and Genetics. 
Upper Malboro, Maryland 

'Lader, Eric Scott, B.S. 1981, Brooklyn College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Brooklyn, New York 

Lee, Jin-Moo, B.A. 1985, Yale University. Fort 
Washington, Maryland 

Lee, MyungSoo, M.D. 1979, M.M.S. 1980 

Seoul National University ( Korea ). Ma- 
jor: Immunology. Dongdaemum-ku, 
Seoul, Korea 

Leonard, Christopher, J., B.S. 1985, Cornell 

University. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Rochester, New 

Li, Luyuan, Graduate Certificate 1982, Si- 
chuan University. Major: Biochemistry. 
Zunyi City, People s Republic of China 

Li, Mingxia, B.S. 1982, Beijing Second Medical 
College: M.S. 1985, Chinese Academy of 
Medical Sciences. Major: Pharmacol- 
ogy. Beijing, China 

Lisanti, Michael, P, B.A. 1985, New York Uni- 
versity. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Rockaway Beach, New York 

Litherland, Sally A., B.S. 1981, University of 

Florida; M.S. 1983 University of Florida. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Satellite Beach, Florida 

Liu, Su, M.D. 1982, Shanghai First Medical Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Hunan, 

Lu, Bai, B.S. 1982, East China Normal Univer- 
sity; M.Sc. 1985, Shanghai First Medical 
College. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior. Shanghai, People's Republic of 

McDonald, William E, B.A. 1985, University of 
Florida. Major: Microbiology, Immunol- 
ogy, and Pathology. Jacksonville, Florida 

McNerney Mary Ellen, B.S. 1977, M.S. 1983, St. 
John's University. Major: Pharmacology. 
Huntington, New York 

Maddock, Anne E., B.A. 1985, Yale University. 
Major: Physiology and Biophysics. Fair- 
field, Connecticut 

Mahajan, Rohit, B.A. 1984, Swarthmore Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 

Maher, Kevin J., B.S. 1984, Manhattan College. 
Major: Microbiology Immunology, and 
Pathology. Yonkers, New York 

Maki, Robert G., B.A. 1985, Northwestern Uni- 
versity Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Omaha, Nebraska 

Mandell, James W, A.B. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Charlottesville, Virginia 

Marino, Michael W, B.A. 1983, Skidmore Col- 
lege; M.S. 1985, University of Texas. Ma- 
jor: Cell Biology and Genetics. Racine, 

'Martinez, Humbertojose, M.D. 1975, Univer- 
sity of Zulia Medical School (Venezu- 
ela ). Major: Neurobiology and Behav- 
ior. Maracaibo, Venezuela 

'Maurer, David H., A.B. 1977, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Immunology. Newburgh, 
New York 

Meyers, Lillian R. S., A.B. 1984, Brown Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Chicago, 

Mok, Minsen, B.A. 1982, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. Major: Cell Biology and Genet- 
ics. Convent Station, New Jersey 

Moncrieff, Patrice M., B.S. 1984, Boston Col- 
lege. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Park Ridge, New Jersey 

Moran, Lorraine M., A.B. 1982, Mount Holyoke 
College; M.S. 1984, St. John's University. 
Major: Molecular Biology. New York, 
New York 


Morham, Scott G., B.S. 1981, Hobart College; 
M.S. 1985, Texas A&M University. Ma- 
jor: Molecular Biology. Tarrytown, New 

Muench, Marcus O., A S. 1983, College of 

Marin; B.S. 1986, University of Califor- 
nia. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
San Francisco, California 

Murakami, Monica S., B.S. 1986, University of 
Maryland. Major: Cell Biology and Ge- 
netics. Yokohama, Japan 

Nicholson, Andrew C, B.S. 1973, D.V.M. 1976, 
Michigan State University. Major: Mi- 
crobiology, Immunology; and Pathology 
Bangor, Maine 

Nocka, Karl H., B.A. 1983, Bowdoin College. 
Major. Molecular Biology. Ridgewood, 
New Jersey 

Norris, Carol Ann, B.S., B.A. 1981, Cabrini Col- 
lege; M.S. 1983, Villanova University. 
Major. Cell Biology and Genetics. Hav- 
ertown, Pennsylvania 

Nussenzveig, Daniel R., M.I). 1980, University 
of Sao Paulo. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Sao Paulo, Brazil 

O'Malley, Edward K., B.S. 1985, SUNY Stony 

Brook. Major: Neurobiology and Behav- 
ior. New York, New York 

Parada, Camilo A., B.S. 1978, Licence Biology 
( Master of Science ) 198 1, Catholic Uni- 
versity of Valparaiso (Chile ). Major: Mo- 
lecular Biology. White Plains, New York 

Patil, NilaJ., B.A. 1980, University of Buffalo. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Buf- 
falo, New York 

-Pearse, Roger N., B.A. 1977, Dartmouth Col- 
lege. Major: Microbiology, Immunology, 
and Pathology. Newport, Rhode Island 

Pincus, David W, B.S. 1985, Yale University. 
Hampden, Massachusetts 

Qiu, Feihua, M.D. 1979, Beijing Medical Col- 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Shang- 
hai, People's Republic of China 

Qiu, Wei-Qiao, M.D. 1982, Peking Medical 
College. Major: Immunology. Peking, 
People's Republic of China 

Ramakrishna, Naren R., B.A. 1985, Johns Hop- 
kins University. Charleston, West 

Rempel, Rachel E., B.Sc. 1986, University of 
Toronto. Major: Cell Biology and Ge- 
netics. Oxford, England 

Robertson, Donna A., B.S. 1979, Syracuse Uni- 
versity. Major: Pharmacology; White 
Plains, New York 

Romanski, Lizabeth M., B.A. 1985, Rutgers 
University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Fort Worth, Texas 

2 Rosenberg, Charles D., A.B. 1978, Washing- 
ton University; M.S. 1979, State Univer- 
sity of New York at Buffalo. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Merrick, New 

Rosenberg, Elizabeth A., B.A. 1981, Wesleyan 
University. Major: Biochemistry. New 
York, New York 

Rubino, Heidi M., B.S. 1980, Muhlenberg Col- 
lege. Major: Biochemistry. New York, 
New York 

Russell, David S., B.A. 1982, Oberlin College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Chagrin Falls, 

Ryshke, Renee C, B.A. 1978, University of 
North Carolina. Major: Immunology. 
Long Branch, New Jersey 

Sawyer, Douglas B., B.S. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Physiology and Biophysics. 
Beverly, Massachusetts 

Sehgal, Amita, B.Sc. 198 1, Delhi University 
(India); M.Sc. 1983, Jawaharial Nehru 
University School of Life Sciences ( In- 
dia ); Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
New Delhi, India 

Sgouros, George, B.S. 1984, Columbia Univer- 
sity. Major: Physiology and Biophysics 
Munich, Germany 

Shaffer, Rose Mary B.S. 1980, Loyola College. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Baltimore, Maryland 

Signorelli, Kathy L., B.A. 1982, Wellesley Col 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Strongs- 
ville, Ohio 

Solomon, David H., A.B. 1982, Oberlin Col 
lege. Major: Molecular Biology. Mon- 
treal, Canada 

-Sordillo, Emilia M., A.B. 1976, Harvard Uni- 
versity; M.D. 1980, Cornell University. 
Major: Immunology. New York, New 


St. Angclo, Carol E., B.S. 1981, Mississippi Uni- 
versity for Women. Major: Molecular 
Biology- Arlington, Texas 

Steiner, Lisa E., B.S. 1985, Cornell University. 
Major: Developmental Therapy and 
Clinical Investigation. Batavia, New 

Stole, Einar, B.S. 1986, University of Washing- 
ton. Major: Biochemistry. Seattle, 

Straub, Richard E., B.A. 1982, New College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
York, New York 

Stricter, Jon W, A.B. 1985, Princeton Univer- 
sity Major: Physiology and Biophysics 
Brooklyn, New York 

Studwell, Patricia S., B.S. 1984, State Univer- 
sity of New York. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Green- 
wich, Connecticut 

Stukenberg, Peter Todd, B.S. 1986, Colgate 
University'. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Syracuse, New York 

Sullenger, Bruce A., B.S. 1986, Indiana Univer- 
sity Major: Molecular Biology. Center- 
ville, Ohio 

Szabo, Aniko, M.D. 1982. Szeged University 
Medical School. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behav ior. Szeged, Hungary 

Taddie, John A., B.S. 1986, Penn State Univer- 
sity Major: Molecular Biology. Indiana, 

Tan, Jimmy C, B.S. 1985, Ateneo de Manila 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Manila, Philippines 

Tantravahi, JogiRaju V, B.A. 1984, Columbia 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Waltham, Massachusetts 

Teumer, Jeffrey K., B.A. 1979, Colgate Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. Sheboy - 
gan, Wisconsin 

Thormodsson, Finnbogi R., B.Sc. 1980, Uni- 
versity of Iceland. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Reykjavik, Iceland 

Till, Martha L., B.S. 1975, Colorado State Uni- 
versity Major. Microbiology, Immunol- 
ogy, and Pathology. Chicago, Illinois 

Tsukuda, Toyoko, A.A. 1975, Laney College; 
B.A. 1977, University of California. Ma- 
jor: Molecular Biology. Osaka, Japan 

Tusie, M. Theresa, B.S. 1979, M.D. 1985, Na- 
tional University of Mexico. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Mexico City 

Underwood, Mark, B.A. 1981, University of 
Vermont. Major: Neurobiology and Be- 
havior. St. Albans, Vermont 

Vaughan, Kevin, B.A. 1984, Hamilton College; 
M.S. 1986, State University of New York 
at Buffalo. Major: Cell Biology and Ge- 
netics. Buffalo, New York 

von Kreuter, Betsy E, B.S. 1982, University of 
Vermont. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Darien, 

Walewski, Jose L., B.S. 1980, Pennsylvania 

State University; M A. 1984, Boston Uni- 
versity Major: Pharmacology. Newton, 

Weinstein, Catherine Ippolito, B.S. 1982, State 
University of New York at Stony Brook. 
Major: Biochemistry. East Meadow, 
New York 

Winick, Jeffrey D., B.S. 1986, Worcester Poly- 
technic Institute. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Boston, 

Wong, Gwendolyn T, B.S. 1984, McMaster 

University ( Canada ). Major: Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. Hamilton, Ontario, 

Wu, Kai-Yuan, B.A. 1983, New York University. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Shanghai, 
People's Republic of China 

Yan, Hai, B.S. 1982, Nanjing University. Major: 
Biochemistry. Wuxi City, People's Re- 
public of China 

Yan, Ning, Diploma 1980, Nanjing University. 
Major: Biochemistry. Nanjing, People's 
Republic of China 

Yokoyama, Midori, B.A. 1983, Pacific Lutheran 
University; M.S. 1985, Stanford Univer- 
sity Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Tokyo, Japan 

Zavitz, Kenton H., B.Sc. 1986, University of To- 
ronto. Major: Molecular Biology. Niag- 
ara Falls, Canada 

Zebala, John A., B.S. 1986, University of South- 
ern California 


Candidate for the Degree of 
Master of Science 

Cuerdon, Elizabeth E, B.S. 1985, Siena Col- 
lege. Major: Microbiology, Immunology, 
and Pathology. Loudonville, New York 

Entering Students 

Abraham, Dicky G., M.S. 1987, Indian Institute 
of Technology. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Bombay, India 

Bao, Luis V, B.S. 1987, Universidad Catholica 
(Chile). Major: Molecular Biology. San- 
tiago, Chile 

Bosenberg, Marcus, B.A. 1976, Cornell Uni- 
versity Middlesex, NJ. 

Bradley, Roger S., B.A. 1984, Carroll College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. Lau- 
rel, Montana 

Chu, Tang- Yuan, M.D. 1983, National Defense 
Medical Center. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of 

Claude, Alejandro, M.S. 1987, Universidad 

Catholica (Chile). Major: Molecular Bi- 
ology. Santiago, Chile 

Cupp, Judith A., B.S., B.A. 1987, Missouri 

Southern State College. Major: Immu- 
nology. Carl Junction, Missouri 

Dakik, Habib A., B.S. 1985, American Univer- 
sity of Beirut (Lebanon ). Major: Neuro- 
biology and Behavior. Beirut, Lebanon 

de Bruin, Derik, B.S. 1986, Eastern New Mex- 
ico University. Major: Molecular Biol- 
ogy. Por tales, New Mexico 

Dratt, Sharon D., B.A. 1984, Sarah Lawrence 
College; M.S. 1987, University of Hawaii 
at Manoa. Major: Immunology. Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii 

Erickson, David A., B.A. 1985, University of 
California at Santa Cruz. Major: Phar- 
macology. San Diego, California 

Folger, Paula A., B.A. 1986, University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Cruz. Major: Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. Santa Cruz, 

Garepapaghi, Mohammed A., B.A. 1987, Bow- 
doin College of Maine. Major: Physiol- 
ogy and Biophysics. Orumieh, Iran. 

Getts, Robert C, B.S. 1986, M A. 1987, Univer- 
sity of Scranton. Major: Biochemistry. 
Taylor, Pennsylvania 

Gistrak, Michael A., B.A. 1985, Brown Univer 
sity. Westchester, New York 

Glickstein, Lisa J., B.S. 1987, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Immunology. Apalachin, 
New York 

Griin, Felix, B.A. 1987, Girton College, Cam- 
bridge University ( England ). Major: Im- 
munology. Surrey, England 

Hagler, Jeremiah, B.A. 1987, University of Cali- 
fornia at Santa Cruz. Major. Molecular 
Biology. Santa Cruz, California 

Hawkins, Denise A., B.S. 1987, Scripps Col- 
lege. Major: Pharmacology. San Dimas, 

Huang, Hsien-Bin, B.S. 1984, M.S. 1986, Na- 
tional Taiwan Normal University 
(Taipei). Major. Biochemistry. Taipei, 
Taiwan, Republic of China 

Lander, Harry, B.S. 1987, State University of 
New York at Stony Brook. Major: Bio- 
chemistry. Lido Beach, New York 

Lim, Lorena C, B.S. 1979, University of the 
Philippines at Los Banos; M.S. 1987, 
University of South Carolina. Major: 
Molecular Biology. Laguna, Philippines 

McAuliffe, Josephine M., B.S. 1987, Rochester 
Institute of Technology. Major: Molecu- 
lar Biology. Poughkeepsie, New York 

Mahmood, Umar, B.A. 1987, California Insti- 
tute of Technology. Rockville, Maryland 

Mayer, Alan, B.S. 1986, M.S. 12/1986, Emory 
University. Miami Beach, Florida 

Miller, Mark, B.A. 1987, Brandeis University. 
Haverstraw, New York 

Naftzger, Clarissa, B.A. 1985, University of Cal- 
ifornia at Berkeley. Major: Immunology. 
La Jolla, California 

Onel, Kenan, B.S. 1984, M A. 1985, Yale Uni 
versity. Scarsdale, New York 

Onrust, Rene, B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, Auckland 
University (New Zealand). 
Christchurch, New Zealand 

Przybylowski, Mark D., B.S. 1/1987, Rutgers 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Middlesex, New York 


Roberts, Gretchen D., B.S. 1976, George 

Washington University. Major: Cell Biol- 
ogy and Genetics. Brooklyn, New York 

Roy, Nita, B.A. 1987, Hood College. Major: Mo- 
lecular Biology. Bangalore, India 

Rubin, Brian, B.S. 1984, M A. 1985, Yale Uni- 
versity Scarsdale, New York 

Schlemmer, Scott, B.S. 1987, Bowling Green 
State University. Major: Pharmacology. 
Stow, Ohio 

Sebold, Joel H., B.A. 1984, M A. 1985, State 

University of New York at Binghamton. 
Major: Radiation Physics ( Master of Sci- 
ence Program ). Brooklyn, New York 

Seo, Yeon Soo, B.S. 1982, M.S. 1984, Seoul Na- 
tional University (Korea). Major: Molec- 
ular Biology'. Seoul, Korea 

Sherwood, Peter, B.S. 1985, Cornell University. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Ithaca, New 

Swarup, Rupendra, B.S. 1985, University of 
Maryland. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Rockville, Maryland 

Tavorath, Ranjana, B.S. 1983, Hindu College of 
Delhi (India); M.B.B.S. 1983, Lady Haid- 
inge Medical College of Delhi (India). 
Major: Molecular Biology. London, 

Treciokas, Amy B., B.A. 1987, Princeton Uni- 
versity Major: Immunology. Needham, 

Xixis, George A., B.S. 1987, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology. Major: Neurobiol- 
ogy and Behavior. Whitestone, New 

Yee, Nelson Shu-Sang, B.S. 1987, Massachu- 
setts College of Pharmacy and Allied 
Health Sciences. Quincy, Massachusetts 

Zhu, Yuan-Shan, B.A. 1978, M.D. 1982, Hunan 
Medical College. Major: Pharmacology. 
Changsha, People's Republic of China 



Administration Register. 70 
Admission, 50 
Applications, 50 
Application Fee, 50 
Awards and Prizes, 56 

Biochemistry. 7, 59 

Biophysics, see Physiology and Biophysics 

Candidate-for-degree-only, 54 
Cell Biology and Genetics. 12, 60 
Committees, 70 

Committee on Student Prizes, 71 
Courses, see under individual Programs 
Credentials Review Committee, 71 
Curriculum Committee, ^0 

Degree Recipients, Register. 80 
Degree Requirements, 51 

Examinations, 53 
Executive Committee. 2, 70 

Faculty Register, 71 

Faculty Advisory Committee, 3, 70 

Faculty and Research Activities, 7 

Fellowships and Scholarships, 55 

Financial Assistance. 55 

Foreign Language Requirements, 54 

also see under individual Programs 


see Cell Biology and Genetics 

see Molecular Biology 
Grades. 52 

Health Services, 56 
Housing, see Residence Halls 

Immunology, 19. 61 
In Absentia. 53, 54 

Leave of Absence. 53, 54 

M.D.-Ph.D. Programs, 3, 57 
M.D.-Ph.D. Program Committee, 71 
Medical Scientist Training Programs, 

see M.D.-Ph.D. Programs 
Molecular Biology; 23, 62 

Neurobiology and Behavior, 29, 64 

Part-time Graduate Study, 52 
Ph.D.-M.D. Program, 4, 57 
Pharmacology, 35, 65 
Physiology and Biophysics, 42, 66 
Prizes, see Awards and Prizes 
Programs of Study 

Biochemistry, 7, 59 

Cell Biology and Genetics, 12, 60 

Immunology, 19,61 

Molecular Biology, 23, 62 

Neurobiology and Behavior, 29, 64 

Pharmacology, 35, 65 

Physiology and Biophy sics, 42, 66 
Provisional Candidacy. 5 1 

Register, 70 
Registration, 52 

Research Activities, see under individual 

Residence and Residence Units, 52 

Transfer of, 53 
Residence Halls, 57 

Requirements and Course Offerings, 50 

Scholarships, 55 
Special Committee, 51 
Special Students, 5 1 
Student Register, 81 
Summer Research, 53 

Thesis, 54 

Tuition and Fees, 54 


see Molecular Biology